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G. A, Gaskell, Publisher. 


VOL Ill-No. 1. 

A golden win, 

The Peu Mightier than the Sword. 

The editor of the Penman s Art Jour- 
al, commenting upon the oft-quoted 
nes of Edward Bulwer Lytton, 

" lieiicath tlie rule of men entirely great, 

the addition of coloring matters, it can 
not only be made to imitate marbles, 
but coral, jet and malachite. It is 
chiefly used for billiard balls, canes, 
dominoes, buttons, and such like ar- 

The pe 

lightier than the sword," — 

very ajHly says : 

"Whether or not the oft-repealed saying, 
Uhe pen is mightier than the sword,' is true, 
is dependent upon the circumstances under 
which they are wielded. In estimating their 
relative power we may properly treat the sword 
as the symbol and agent of organized physical 
force, while the pen symbolizes the great moral 
power of the wurld — that which civilizes and 
elevates the untnlnl-*•'^ «i«v!.cc tn « mr.T* of !;l. 
science and refinement. Thus viewed, 
; can be no doubt but that the pen now ex- 
es upon the world a power balanced with 
which the sword weighs as naught. Even in 
warfare, as conducted in modern times under 
the code observed by all civilized nations, the 
d itself becomes little more than the agent 
of the pen. At its command the sword is 
thcathed or unsheathed, and its blows are di- 
ted, given or withheld, at its command. In 
len limes, when the rule of the world was 
light made right,' the voice of the pen, if 
t altogether silent, was but feebly heard. The 
ord was the one recognized power. Under 
sway kings and tyrants arrogated to them- 
vcs the divine right to rule the masses, as 
vcs having no rights which a king was bound 
lespect. But gr.-idually the pen has asserted 
supremacy, and emancipated itself and the 
rid from the thraldom of the sword. Its vic- 
io^ have been those of light over darkness, 
truth over error, civil and religious liberty over 
the tyranny of royal and priestly bigots and ■ 
nis. From their hands it has wrested the 
d. and broken forever its power; and in 
plaLC of empires, ruled by tyrants, the pen has 
(.1 ilic way for nations founded and gov- 
ly the people, for the people. And in 
NK-s, assisted by its handmaid, the press, 
1 an accelerated speed, led the van of 
-^ in all departments of human thought 

: ly. the j)en u mightier than the sword." 

Artiftclnl Hnrble. 

rt-ad the following i 


1 English 


-■ manufacture of ' bonsilate,' or 
lal marble, has become quite an 
try in Newark, New Jersey. It is 
to be made from green ground 
- as a basis, cemented in some way 
1 is not made public. The material 
.ic moulded in a plastic state into 
sheetsor slabs, and turned, polished 
wed into the desired shape. By 

Lndles* Handwriting. 


We frequently read in the newspapers, 
and hear the assertion made in society, 
that all our good writers are men. Not 
long ago so able a paper as the St. Louis 
Rfpublican gave it as its editorial opinion 
that a good hand among ladies was un- 
known ; that they could not learn to 
write what sensible business men would 
call a respectable hand. The fashion- 
able ladies' seminaries in that locality 
had evidently warped the editor's judg- 
ment, and he had not taken the pains 
to inspect any 
good penmanship 
from other parts 
of the country, 
"The stylish an- 
gular hand, as 
used in the best 
society," advertis- 
ed by a lady writ- 
ing teacher in 
New York, is not 
the hand that any 

would want, cer- 
tainly ; nor is it 
an elegant style. 
Its chief defect, 
we should say, is 
its illegibility. 
One loses all pa- 
tience in trying to 
decipher it. We 
are glad to know 
that it is no longer 

During the past seven years the writer 
has received many thousands of letters 
from ladies in all parts of the country in- 
quiring respecting changes they contem- 
plated making in their penmanship. He 
has found that those writing that style are 
the most anxious to change it, and that 
they desire a different hand taught those 
in their own families. The English an- 
gular hand, among ladies, is going out 
of date, as did the angular hand of the 
gentlemen, many years ago ; and we are 
very confident that there will be little 
regret expressed at its disappearance. 

Many ladies in various parts of the 
country are teaching the new style with 
encouraging success, and there is a wide 
field open among women who are anx- 
ious for good work in which to do it. 
Let our lady teachers learn to write well, 
and to teach a good hand, and great 

numbers of their own sex will be the 
gainers thereby. 

Miss Annie Deane Shaw, of Ma- 
chias, Maine, whose portrait is given 
herewith, is one of the best writers of 
her sex in this country. As a private 
lady, she has consented to allow the 
publication of her autograph, if it may 
be the means of encouraging others to 
acquire a good hand. It may prove to 
some that it is not by any means im- 
possible for ladies to do so, even by 
home practice, without a teacher. 

The Great Fog. 

The fog which prevailed in London 
from November, 1879, to February, 1880, 
was so remarkable both for its denseness 
and protractedness as to constitute it 
one of the most memorable fogs on 
record. The question has been inves- 
tigated by Dr. 



and the results re- 



in the 

journal of 

the Scottish Me- 


gical So- 


The in- 


e in the 


rate was 



as the 

se figures. 


the whole 

mortality for each 

JO, 1,900, 


the fashionable 

other words, sev- 
eral thousand 
persons fell victims to the disastrous 
fatality of this great fog. An examina- 
tion of the figures in the registrar gen- 
eral's report shows that no approach to 
so large an increase in the death rate 
showed itself in any of the other British 
large towns, and in none of these did 
fog of a noteworthy character occur. 
Of all diseases, asthma was the most 
directly influenced in its fatality by the 
fog, for as the density of the fog increased, 
so did the deaths, from asthma, and as 
the fog abated, relief came at once to 
the asthmatic, and the death rate in- 
stantly fell. Thus the mortality rose to 
220 per cent, above the average during 
the week of densest fog, but as the 
fog gave way, the mortality fell to 40 
per cent, below the average. Bronchitis, 
pneumonia, pleurisy, and other lung 
diseases appeared also with an enor- 
mously increased fatality, the mortality 
from bronchitis rising during the week, 

when the fog was at its worst, to 331 
per cent, above its average. In the case 
of the diseases, however, the relief did 
not come instantaneously with the ces- 
sation of the fog, but injuries of a more 
permanent nature appear to have been 
sustained, which kept the death rate at 
a high figure for some time after the 
fog had finally disappeared. Whooping 
cough exhibited these characteristics in 
even a still more pronounced manner. 
The pernicious effects of the fog lin- 
gered still longer in the system, so that 
while the death rate rose during the 
worst week of the fog to 182 percent, 
above the average, four weeks thereafter 
it had fallen no lower than 74 per cent, 
above the normal mortality of whooping 
cough. It is singular, and, particularly 
to the medical profession, profoundly 
interesting, that deaths from croup, 
diphtheria, and rheumatism did not 
show any distinct relation to the fog. 
As regards other diseases, the deaths 
from which are registered, they equally 
did not "Appeal "to ahow any steady con- 
nection with the fog's varying denseness 
and persistency. This pernicious and 
deadly character of fog on persons 
suffering from these diseases is not due 
to fog as such, but to the noxious quali- 
ties imparted to it by our large towns. 
Dr. Angus Smith has shown that the air 
of Manchester during an extremely dense 
fog contained 20.85 per cent, of oxygen, 
or one tenth per cent, less than the nor- 
mal quantity. The pernicious character 
of fog, however, is to be traced not so 
much to this slight diminution of atmos- 
pheric oxygen as to the presence of 
positively deleterious substances. — Na- 

Ornamental Penmanship. 

Some very beautiful ornamental pieces 
will soon be ready for publication in the 
Gazette, We hope to have one from 
our engravers for the next issue. Our 
most famous ornamental penmen will be 
represented. This feature alone will be 
worth far more than the cost of the pa- 
per for the entire year. 

A writer in Nature says, that before 
e voyage of the Challenger scarcely 


thirty dee 
that although this nu 
much increased, yet 
families have been di 
although perfectly nc 
esting modifications 
have been met 

known ; 
Tiber has been very 
no new types or 
jcovered, and that, 
vel and very inter- 
of certain organs 
has been 

with, the 

nothing more discovered than what 
might have been expected from what 
was known previously of the group. 

Sloth makes 'all things diflicult, but 
industry* all things easy. 


SketchM of Trarel. 


The conference recently held at Mad- 
rid has, at any rate, shown a great num- 
l)cr of people that Morocco is a strange 
country, and that the natives are given 
to outrage. The atrocities perpetrated 
some weeks ago told us that the consu- 
lar protection is of a very anomalous 
character, and has been frequently abus- 
ed. Public curiosity respecting the coun- 
try has been already stirred, so in the 
following pages we propose to give a 
brief description of Morocco, its people, 
and the chief places within its borders. 
The easiest way to reach Tangiers is 
from Gibraltar, and we will, therefore, at 
once cross the straits. 

What a contrast ! Behind us we have 
left the bustling rock, crowded with 
British troops, and bristling with can- 
non. On all sides civilization and evi- 
dences of a Christian community are ob- 
servable ; cross the tumbling water, and 
all is changed. You are in an unknown 
land. Three short hours have made the 
difference. Civilization js ignored ; a 
Christian, if not openly regarded as an 
enemy, is suspected; and Europe is mor- 
ally and physically the opposite land. 
Kven the landing is different, for we are 
carried ashore on the backs of half-naked 
Arabs, our chins, perchance, resting up- 
on their polished skulls, and our toes 
dipping into the water. 

The first thing that will strike the vis- 
itor to Morocco is the peculiar aspect of 
the natives. Everything about them is 
strange. Their dress, their attitudes, 
looks, the dreamy expression on their 
faces, their bare, metallic looking skulk 
and fixed eyes, combined with their 
cloaked appearance, give them the as- 
pect of a colony of spectres or of a Do- 
minican brotherhood let loose. And the 
streets are quite in keeping with the pop- 
ulation. The City of Tangiers is simply 
a labyrinth of lanes, crooked and not 
clean. The houses are square, white, 
and windowless, half convent, half pris- 
on, with doors so small that entrance is 
not easy : domiciles fit for " hide and 
seek " rather than for residence, and 
redolent of garlic, fish, and other odors, 
all the houses wearing, like their owners, 
the weary air of mystery and etmui. 

The first appearance of Tangiers, 
therefore, is certainly not cheerful to the 
late sojourner at Gibraltar. Nor can the 
visitor amuse himself, or rather herself 
(for ladies like shopping), by gazing at 
windows and appraising wares. The 
shops are mean to a degree. Those in 
the only square, around which are the 
various legations, are wretched. Here 
is the well defined shore upon which the 
sea of barbarism breaks — a line of civil- 
ization merely. The rest is all barbaric 
— a dead sea of unknown extent. 

But if the aspect of the city be dull 
during the day, what shall we say of it at 
night? Fully illuminated by a refulgent 
moon, which lights up the white walls 
with almost dazzling splendor, Tangiers 
is a city of the dead. The cloaked spec- 
tres have disappeared into the whited 
sepulchres — the houses. A bundle of 
rags will stir at your feet ; it is an Arab! 
You tread upon the skeleton of a cat and 
recoil. Your footsteps echo in the de- 
serted lanes, and probably the beating of 
your own heart will be all the sound you 
will hear. All is mute and lifeless around 

Apropoi of the "bundle of rags" we 
mentioned before, nothing will surprise 
the visitor to Morocco more than the ex- 
traordinary manner in which the native 
will curl himself up in a comer or lie 
down against a wall. In a spot where 
we should fancy a boy or a bundle 
would find insufficient and uncomfort- 
able space, an Arab will sit or crouch in 
perfect happiness. " He spreads him- 
self on a wall like a bas-relief, and flat- 
lens himself upon the ground like a 
sheet spread out to dry." And in all 
these attitudes he appears alternately 
headless, legless, or trunkless, a ball, a 
cube, or a nondescript. His adaptabil- 
ity is wonderful. 

Let us glance for a moment at the dif- 
ferent races occupying the country and 
their mode of government. There are 
about eight millions of inhabitants — Eu- 
ropeans, Arabs, Jews, Berbers, Moors, 
and negroes. The Berbers, who are 
really a savage tribe, dwell near the 
Great Atlas, and are quite independent. 
The Arabs — the conquering people — 
occupy the plains, while the Moors hold 
the wealth and commerce of the country 
in their hands. The negroes are ser- 
vants, soldiers, or laborers. The Jews, 
numbering about half a million, are here 
detested to the full, but manage to make 
money and to wring a subsistence from 
the hands that persecute and oppress 
them. The Europeans are very few, and 
they are obliged to live under consular 

The government is military, and is 
chiefly exercised in extracting all it can 
from the miscellaneous population. The 
tribes are obedient to sheiks, cities or 
provinces are ruled by cadis, then the 
pasha, and finally the Sultan, have the 
upper hand. So under such a govern- 
ment, or organized system of oppres- 
sion, everything that grows up fades, 
withers and dies, killed by savage fanat- 
icism. Commerce is choked, manufac- 
tures are restricted to the old Moorish 
methods. Agriculture is equally ham- 
pered ; education is thrust out : there 
are no books, no maps, no printing 
presses, and the language itself is as cor- 
rupted as the national character. This 
is what is left of the once proud seat of 
a glorious monarchy. Ichabod, Ichabod ! 
The glory has indeed departed ! 

The dress of the people is very pic- 
turesque. That of the men is ordinarily 
a white mantle, but on gala days is more 
elaborate. The women cover their faces 
with the end of their long mantles, un- 
der which they wear a wide sleeved gar- 
ment, bound round the waist with a cord. 
Nothing but the eyes, fingers, and bare 
feet thrust into slippers are visible. 
They are a sad, weary race, prized till 
twenty, then they get old and withered, 
and are treated like beasts of burden 
till they die. 

It is somewhat curious to remark that 
lunatics or idiots are considered saints 
in Morocco. This supposition arises 
from the accepted idea that Providence 
has withdrawn reason to keep it in heav- 
en, and generally throughout North Af- 
rica this is accepted as a proof of sanc- 
tity. These saints are at times mere 
impostors — men who assume an idiotic 
manner and action in order to benefit 
by the holiness that attaches to lunatics. 
They take strange liberties, however, 
and to receive a blow from a stick or to 
have the " saint " spit in your face are 
privileges which, however greatly prized 

by the natives, have not yet found favor 
in the eyes of Europeans. These pre- 
judices may in time wear off; at present 
the feeling is rather in opposition both 
to the actions and to the odor of sanc- 
tity in Morocco. Such a welcome as we 
have referred to is by no means uncom- 
mon, and the Christian is regarded as 
very fortunate if received by a blessed 
saint who may have spat in his face. 

There are many interesting features 
about Tangiers, had we space to dwell 
upon them. We may mention a few of 
the most striking. One certainly might 
expect conveyance, but in the whole 
town there is not a cart nor a carriage. 
No itinerants go round with wares, no 
street occupation absorbs the pedes- 
trians, no movement to speak of, no 
bells, no cries, no invitations to pur- 
chase. Repose has settled upon all ; 
even the active minded visitor will suc- 
cumb at last, and sit for hours doing 
nothing, not knowing what to do. And 
in this somnolent city you can wander 
about at will, and will lose yourself, no 
doubt, in the hopeless maze of little 
houses and lanes and alleys. Every 
lane is like every other lane, all the al- 
leys and tiny squares are fae-similies of 
other alleys and squares, and one might 
very easily disappear never to return. 
This is all the more curious as the whole 
place could be built up, with plenty of 
land surrounding it, in half Kensington 
Gardens ; and in this labyrinth you may, 
as a Christian, wander unharmed and 
almost unnoticed. No pickpocket of 
civilization will molest you, and Euro- 
pean women might carry their purses in 
their outside pockets without fear of 

There are various religious ceremo- 
nies which will bear description, one of 
which, the entry of thL "Aissawa," is 
very popular. The "Aissawa " is a reli- 
gious fraternity, and they keep alive the 
fervor of devotion by various exercises, 
which break out in dervish fashion into 
extravagant manifestations, such as danc- 
ing, leaping, yelling. These simple ex- 
ercises soon expand into a sort of mad- 
ness, and when under the influence of 
this great excitement, they will burn 
themselves with hot coals and gash 
themselves with knives, as did the pro- 
phets of Baal in their frenzy. Under 
these circumstances they are quite irre- 
sponsible for their actions, and will seize 
and devour raw any small an' ^ in the 
streets, and finally fall down insensible. 
Such are the people — a confraternity of 
fanatics — who come dancing, struggling, 
and staggering into Tangiers. Some en- 
deavor to beat their heads against the 
walls ; others are already almost ex- 
hausted, and are upheld by their com- 
panions ; others, again, are pale, rigid 
spectres, foaming at the mouth, and ap- 
parently contracted by fearful spasms. 
The spectacle is an unpleasant one — a 
grim procession of madmen, a gruesome 

The fete of Mahomet is a more varied 
and much more pleasant sight — the 
charges of Arab horsemen, the games, 
the story tellers, the snake charmers, 
and the lances of the soldiers making a 
pleasant change. There is no drinking, 
save a little water, no pairing off of 
young couples, no betting, nor horse 
play, which we are so accustomed to see 
in so called civilized society ! 

But Tangiers, although interesting and 
containing a great deal that is novel, is 

not Morocco, and we must now pass 
outside the town, where we shall find 
many curious features. For instance, 
all around the city walls is a " girdle of 
gardens " rich in a sort of vegetation, but 
too neglected. Aloes, Indian figs, oaks, 
oleanders, and numerous shrubs grow 
thickly, and intertwine their branches 
with the ivy. vine, and cane. Rank and 
luxuriant grass, quantities of flowers, in 
places growing two feet high, a small 
white house, a wheel, a well, by means of 
which irrigation is carried on at times 
through trenches, but not a living being 
is to be seen. All is rank and luxuriant 
in vegetation, but all is dead and lonely 
so far as the people are concerned. Here 
the cultivation ends. Beyond this zone 
of verdure there are no trees, nor hedges, 
nor boundaries to be seen. Rolling hills, 
undulating plains, and verdant valleys 
stretch away, but scarce any tilling of 
the ground is attempted. Ploughing is 
carried on in the most primitive manner ; 
a small, so called plough, guided by one 
hand, while the other wields the whip, 
carries us at once back hundreds of 
years, when our Lord's rebuke — "No 
man having put his hand to the plough, 
and looking back, is fit for the kingdom 
of God " — must have been literally ap- 
plicable to the implement mentioned. 
The mode of using this plough is curi- 
ous. Any animal is pressed into the 
service : a goat or a mule, or both to- 
gether ; even a donkey and a woman are 
sometimes yoked, and pull together very 
well in Morocco. Agriculture is of an 
extremely primitive order, for were the 
land in any degree cultivated — as we un- 
derstand the process — the ground would 
yield a hundredfold increase to the pos- 

So passing out of the strange and nev- 
er to be forgotten City of Tangiers, we 
start for Fez ; for the escort has arrived, 
accompanied by horses, mules, camels, 
tents, and attendants ; and last, but not 
least, the Sultan's permission to depart. 
What a curious escort we have to con- 
duct us through the unknown solitudes, 
and to guard our canvas houses ! What 
a number of animals — no less than fifty 
horses and seventy mules, besides cam- 
els, which last, with their loads of wine 
and provisions, started three days in ad- 
vance ! At last all is ready ; the escort 
is prepared, the travellers are mounted, 
and the cavalcade, preceded by the 
green banner of the prophet, siaits 
away from Tangiers. 

Although we cannot pretend to de- 
scribe an actual journey through Mo- 
rocco, we may, from authentic sources, 
notice some of the chief features and in- 
cidents which the traveller will be most 
likely to encounter on the way; so we 
will beg the reader to imagine himself 
seated upon a horse and proceeding 
across the undulating country, green and 
solitary, wherein the so called road is 
composed of a series of paths winding 
in and out, and sometimes descending 
deeply, and in its roughness resembling a 
dried up water course. A few palms 
and aloes may show against the golden 
sky, but probably no one will be met 
with until the encampment is sighted, 
and then, amid noise and bustle, you 
will dismount among the attendants, 
many of whom have preceded you, and 
you will find the tents all ready. And 
in the pitching of tents, had you been 
present during that operation, as well as 
at the breaking up of the encampment 


ncM morning, the European will not fail 

to nuiire the wonderful passion for au- ; 
thnnty that is existent in every Arab, j 
Nn one who possesses a scintilla of au- 
thurity will abate it by a fraction, and 
man\ will assume an air of command 
although they possess it not. The ser- 
vant of the lowest grade will endeavor 
to t\ rannize over a humble spectator, if 
he can only find a convenient opening. 

I In the way the native tribute of pro- 
visions will probably be paid by order 
ol tiK- Sultan, if your caravan is of suf- 
fii I'.ntly elevated rank. Besides a heavy 
t:i\ \>M<i in money, the inhabitants must 
furnish this mona or tribute on certain 
Ol < (Mons, and very irksome it must be. 
liiii there is no redress. Then the escort 
will, perhaps, amuse the traveller by 
their \\'\\d games and antics, racing hith- 
er ami thither, discharging their guns, 
and yelling all the time as if possessed; 
then later, forming into most striking 
comliinations in their evolutions, the 
the varied and varying colors of the 
ni.iniles producing an effect which it is 
iiiiliossihle to describe. 

In ' rossing Morocco we must not ig- 
nore the celebrated tribe of the Beni- 
Hassan, which is notorious for its thiev- 
ish and turbulent character. Indeed, 
theft is the profession of the duar or en- 
tani[iment,and it is elevated to a science. 
Stealing on horseback is practised to 
perfection: the men act and disappear 
with such rapidity that is impossible to 
rei o;^nize them; they will also glide 
Ihmuyh grass, and come in all sorts of 
disL^uises; they will incur almost cer- 
tain death to filch a fowl, and go ten 
miles un the chance of stealing a few 
shillings. The duar, or Arab encamp- 
ment, is worth describing, as by it we 
shall better understand life in Morocco ; 
and, indeed, Morocco can scarcely be 
realized without such a description. 
Tlu Jiiar is composed of a number of 
families, say fifteen, and all are related 
to each Other; each family occupies a 
separate tent. These eligible family 
residences are erected about thirty paces 
a|)art, and in appearance are much the 
same as those used by the Numidians in 
the time of Jugurtha, viz., a boat keel 
u|iuard. An aperture is left for venti- 
I.iinin, and fenced by a tiny hedge of 
reed^. The tent is divided into two 
portions — the parents occupy one, *he 
children the other part. '" a cornti 
we shall probably find a hen and her 
l>i>),)d ; in front of the tent is an oven, 
I losi_- |iy a plot of ground for herb grow- 
ing, and a few pits wherein corn is 

I'lie furniture of the tent consists of a 
few straw mats, a clothes chest, a mir- 
ror, a tripod covered with a mantle, un- 
der which the family perform their ab- 
lutions, two stones for crushing corn, 
fire arms, a weaver's loom, of a pattern 
dating from Abraham, and a few other 
useful articles, such as a distaff, some 
jars, etc. These are the usual features. 
.\ tent is usually given to the school- 
master, but the instruction imparted is, 
as a rule, not very tangible. Existence 
is ol the simplest and most peaceful 
kind At dawn all the people are up, 

ous domestic duties, including the pre- 
paration of cuscussu. 

Perhaps our readers do not know 
what cuscussu is. "It is a mixture of 
beans and other vegetables peppered," 
mixed with the juices of meat ; some- 
times it is sweetened. This is eaten for 
supper, and after supper all go to bed at 
sunset. A story may be told for the 
general entertainment, but, as a rule, the 
duar is soon plunged in sleep and in 
darkness, except where a lamp may be 
lighted in some hospitable tent, to guide 
the weary traveller to shelter and re- 
freshment. Although the clothing of 
the tribes is seldom washed, the bodies 
of the weavers are more carefully at- 
tended to, for no one can pray without 
washing, but they are always more or 
less dirty. The principal event in the 
lives of the people is a wedding. The 
bride is fattened for the occasion, per- 
fumed, her nails stained with henna, and 
her eyebrows are corked. She dis- 
mounts at the door of her husband's 
tent, and, seated, looks on at the dances 
and exercises of the bridegroom's friends. 
Coins are deposited in a cloth spread on 

i prayers 

lid, the 




i the 

made, and then after 
kfast the men go to work till the 
ling. The women meantime bring 
^r and gather in the wood, grind the 
1, weave the material for dress, twist 
eords, and attend to their numer- 

mony. Next day the wife goes around 
to collect more money, and afterward 
the "happy pair" go about their usual 
avocations in the most matter of fact 
manner. These are some of the features 
of life in Morocco, and for the rest who 
can tell ? Poverty, squalor, and oppres- 
sion are patent to all, and when oppres- 
sion can no longer be borne, revolt raises 
its head, and the Sultan quenches the 
rebellion in blood. 

We will now take a glance at Fez and 
bring our wanderings to a conclusion. 
The first impression of this city is decay. 
On all sides houses are crumbling to 
pieces, and ihe whole place is full of 
misery, and steeped in a "melancholy 
twilight ;" long, covered passages like 
tunnels, blind alleys, dens full of all 
sorts of abominations. Emerging into 
wider streets, the crowd is very great. 
The principal thoroughfares are but six 
feet wide, and a camel tramping along, 
or a Moor on horseback, will squeeze 
the foot passengers against the houses. 
Hooded spectres perambulating the 
streets ; horrible old women, men scarce- 
ly clad, corpses carried along the street, 
and madmen, or " saints," with an assem- 
blage of wretched boys, bleeding pris- 
oners, *< an almost insupportable heat 
and dust, do not at first recommend Fez 
to the Christian. Yet an Arabian histo- 
rian says, "O Fez, all the beauty of the 
earth is concentrated in thee !" — the seat 
of wisdom, science, peace and religion. 
Do you want to make purchases in Fez, 
you will be in some respects disappoint- 
ed. Candles? "We will make some; 
there are none." Matches? "We will 
have them ready in an hour," and so on. 
Books are unknown. There were some 
once, but the owner has died, and his 
heirs cannot be traced. 

Yet the merchants sometimes go to 
Italy, where they buy silks, damasks, 
coral, pearls, muslin, and numerous 
other articles. For these they exchange 
their stuffs, hides, arms and pottery. 
The red caps which are known as fezet 
are made here, and are very fine and 
durable, while the carpets are admirable. 
The muskets, swords, and daggers are 
also of beautiful workmanship. Hides 
are the principal source of gain. The 
scarlet leather from Fez, the yellow from 

, and the green of Tafilet art 
well known. Jewelry, furniture, anc 
bookshelves are also mar^'ellously work 
ed and ornamented. There is no doubt ' 
that were the restrictions removed, the 
commerce of the country would advance 
rapidly, and prosperity would be assur- 
ed. The principal trade is with Eng- 
land, but much is also done with France, 
Spain, and the interior of Africa, whither 
avans proceed across the 
Sahara. Morocco is the gate of Nigri- 
d would prove a very useful por- 
tal, did not barbarism thrust civilization 
3m the threshold. 

We have, in the foregoing sketch, given 
slight and necessarily imperfect ac- 
count of Morocco. Any one desirous 
to read a more detailed description of 
this most interesting country, should ob- 
tain the volume written by Edmondo de 
Amicis,* who accompanied the Italian 
ambassador to Morocco, from which 
much of our information has been 
gleaned. We have traversed this land 
in imagination, and have not nearly ex- 
hausted its beauties or its interest. We 
could fill pages with details which all 
would be glad to read, but we must 
close. With regret we leave the land of 
Barbary, and 

" Folding our tent like the Arabs, 
As silently steal away." 

H. Frith. 


There are not 500 negroes in all Ger- 

A Kansas coon is made to turn a 

A banana ripens in Florida during 
every month in the year. 

They use dogs to draw their milk-carts 
in German towns and cities. 

A live lizard was found by a well-dig- 
ger in New Market, Va., the other day, 
twenty-five feet below the surface. 

In the interior of Africa no negro boy 
is allowed to eat chicken. A child that 
had eaten one was himself eaten, as a 

A queer individual at Keokuk, la., 
called on an undertaker, and got meas- 
ured for a coffin. He said he wanted 
no measuring tapes about his remains. 

A new catacomb has been discovered 
at Rome, and partially explored. About 
a dozen chapels have been found, most 
of which are adorned with paintings. 

A girl living in Cambridge City, Ind., 
is the happy possessor of the greatest 
piece of foolishness in the world; it i 
half-finished bedquilt containing 3, 

A learned physician finds that the 
figure on the crucifix in Burgos Cathe 
dral is a human body in a perfect state 
of preservation. It is said to have been 
there since the eleventh century. 

In ancient Rome a wash of asses' milk 
was believed to brighten the beauty of 
the skin. On this account Poppsa, thi 
wife of Nero, had 500 asses milked daily 
to give her a cosmetic bath. 

There is a bottle of wine over 1800 
years old, that will be opened at the 
coming anniversary of the destruction 
of Pompeii. It was dug out of the ruins, 
having been buried about the year 79. 

In a cubic inch of a certain kind of 
mould, consisting of animalcules, more 
than forty-one millions of distinct beings 
were estimated by Ehrenberg to exist ; a 
fact which, when taken in connection 
with others of the same nature, renders 
it highly probable that the living beings 
of the microscopic world surpass in num- 
ber those which are visible to the naked 

The prosecuting witness in one of the 
cases before the Galveston recorder re- 
cently had a lump over his eye as big as 
an egg-plant, which was caused by Jim 
Webster throwing a lump of coal at him, 
without the slightest provocation. " I 
can't see as there is a single mitigating 
circumstance," said the recorder. "Why 
jedge, you has overlooked one ob de mit- 
igatinest sarcumstances in de world. 1 
only hit him wid a lump of soft coal. 
Don't yer call dat mitigatin', when I 
could hab fotched him just as easy wid 
a lump of hard coal ? " 

Rev. Dr. Irenaeus Prime, editor of the 
New York Obsen'er, in a lecture on " Wits 
of the Pulpit," in that city recently, said 
that Dr. Strong, of Hartford, was a man 
of great natural wit, and oftentimes in- 
dulged it without thinking of its effect. 
Leading a ministerial prayer meeting on 
one occasion, he said, " Brother Colton, 
of Bolton, will you step this way and 
pray?" to which Mr. Colton responded, 
" Brother Strong, you do very wrong to 
make a rhyme at such a time ; " and Dr. 
Strong again remarked, " I'm sorry to 
see you are just like me." 

"You haven't asked me all the ques- 
tions. Now don't say you have, for you 
know you haven't ! " said a citizen to a 
census official. " No," replied the lat- 
ter, demurely ; " I haven't asked you, sir, 
whether you could read or write, because 
that would be an insult ; I haven't asked 
you whether you were a negro, because I 
can see that you are not ; I haven't asked 
you whether you are lame or blind or 
dead, for the same reason ; and I haven't 
asked you whether you are an idiot, be- 
cause that is unnecessary." 

A clergyman past the middle age, 
after having united a loving couple in 
the holy bonds of matrimony, was asked 
by some one present at the marriage 
feast, how he, bachelor, could consist- 
ently engage in such ceremonies. The 
good man's answer was significant : 
" In a man's life there are two periods 
when he is likely to marry — one when 
he is young and has no sense, the other 
when he is old and lost his sense." He 
was glad to inform them that he was 
past one, and had not yet reached the 

The church was warm, the minister 
was dull, and everybody fell asleep ex- 
cept the half-witted man, Jamie Fleming. 
" My brethren," shouted the indignant 
pastor, "you should take the example 
of that fool there. He keeps awake." 
"Ay, ay, minister," shouted Jamie, "but 
if I hadn't been a fool I would have been 
asleep, like the ithers." 

Curiously innocent notions of anatomy 
are peculiar to children. The following 
fragment comes from Pan's nursery: 
Harry to Cissy, who is nursing her 
doll—" Oh, Cis, I'se dot a pain !" Cissy, 
sympathetically — " Poor dear ! Is it 
where the china joins the sawdust?" 
Harry, illustrating—" No, Cis ; it's where 
the squeak comes." 


JEin-SBTT OITT, i^r. X 

G. A. Gaskell, Proprietor. 

All letters should be addressed as follows 

P. 0. Box 1534, 
New YorkCifyP. 
By keeping this in mind much time will 
be saved. 

The (])azelt« Ererf Month. 


Hundreds of letters have been re- 
ceived recently from our correspond- 
ents in all parts of the country urging 
us to begin, as soon as possible, the reg- 
ular publication of the Gazette as a 
monthly^ at a stated subscription price. 
They tell us we must make the latter 
sufficient to repay us for our time, labor 
and expense. 

This issue is the first in answer to this 
demand, and hereafter our friends may 
have the Gazette ri>ery month with per- 
fect regularity. Each issue will be very 
carefully prepared, and altogether new. 

There are now nearly one hundred 
and fifty thousand young people in all 
parts of this country (and we are now 
adding to this number four thousand 
each month) who have purchased and 
used Gaskcll's Compendium. This will 
be, emphatically, their paper ; it will be 
conducted expressly to serve their varied 
interests and wants. With a large sub- 
scription list, we can afford to put the 
paper as low as seventy-five cents a year, 
which will be the price. 

We shall employ the ablest writers and 
the best artists, and will make it every 
way worthy of its large constituency. It 
will be our constant aim to give our sub- 
scribers the handsomest penman's paper 
in the world, as well as the brightest, the 
newsiest, and in all respects the best .' 

Gargell nnd Gnrkell. 

Two enterprising Boston firms are ad- 
vertising ** Self-teaching Compendiums" 
Obnier & Co. want agents for GarkeU's 
Compendium, and Tracy & Co. are anx- 
ious to supply the people with Gargell's. 
It is probably unnecessary for us to say 
that these " Compendiums " are frauds ; 
that there are no such penmen living (or 
dead) as Garkell, or Gargell. This is 
no doubt the sharpest swindle recently 
developed. We hear of many who have 
sent for these, expecting to receive an 
entirely different article, the change in 
the name not being noticed. 

Editorial Notes. 

Now that the elections are over, Puck, 
the only really successful humorous pa- 
per of the metropolis, has turned its at- 
tention to educational matters. Though 
we may not wholly agree with Puek, 
there are, no doubt, defects in all sys- 
tems of education. The business col- 
leges are undoubtedly as nearly practical 
as. and more useful than, almost any 
other class of schools. 

The New Penholder. 

" If I could only hold my pen cor- 
rectly 1 could make a good writer ; I 
have tried, and tried, and could never 
learn ! " Not only do many of our boys 
and girls give expression to this, but 
thousands of older ones. The matter of 
penholding seems to be the great diffi- 
culty. Teachers have sought in many 
ways to overcome this. Some have tried 
tying the fingers, to keep them in a cor- 
rect position ; others, like Eastman, have 
harnessed the hand, to compel it to com- 
ply with the teacher's plan ; but none of 
these methods have been entirely satis- 

The latest device is the Orthodactylic 
Penholder, a very simple contrivance, 
like an ordinary holder, but with plates 
for the fingers. It can be used by any 
one with perfect ease, and is a success. 
The great barrier to improvement has at 
last been overcome. 

We do not know who should be cred- 
ited with this invention. The penholder 
is manufactured in England, and was 
first introduced here by the Spencers. 
It is having a remarkably large sale in 
all parts of the country. No teacher 
now thinks of conducting a writing clajs 
without giving his pupils the opportunity 
to supply themselves with it ; and, by so 
doing, his work is greatly advanced, arid 
rapid and permanent improvement made. 
The cost of manufacture cannot be much, 
in that of the ordinarjy 
id the inventors are no 
fortune from it. But 
work well, none will be 
plain of that. Fifteen 
is not a very high price 
to pay for an article that gives a perfect 
position of the hand and saves months 
of effort, which, in many cases, without 
something of the sort, would ultimately 
end in failure altogether. 

if any, more tha 
cheap holder, ar 
doubt making a 
as it is doing its 
disposed to com 
or twenty cents 

" Have you any of the penholders for keeping 
the fingers in a correct position, for left hand 
writers?" — John E., Newark. 

No. All our penholders are made for 
right hands. 

"Which movement do you recommend for 
business writing, the whole arm, finger, or mus- 
cular?" Teacher, Oberlin, O. 

The muscular or combined movement 
{the united motion of the forearm, hand 
and fingers, with the elbow rest) is the 

" Where can I get a good book for business 
correspondence?"— Henry B., Dayton, O. 

Townsend's Letter Writer is a good 
book ; price $1.50. We will take pleas- 
ure in mailing you a copy at that price. 

Brooklyn, E. D. 

Several of the subjects treated are the 
same, though there is a wide difference 
in the manner of treatment. The new 
book gives a complete course in Pen- 
manship, Bookkeeping, Business Forms 
and Customs, something respecting 
Banking and Bank Clearing Houses ; 
and Business and Social Correspond- 
ence are fully explained and illustrated. 
It is the largest work of the kind now 

before the public, and, we may add, 
much the handsomest, for the publishers 
and printers have done their very best 
with it. The price is $5.50. Orders 
may be addressed to us. 

Good Ink. 

Why don't correspondents use good 
ink ? Can it not be had ? If they can- 
not buy it, they can make it with very 
little trouble. The American Agricul- 
turist says : 

Use Black Ink— Many of the letters that 
come to us are written with ink so pale that it 
is often difficult to find out the purport of the 
writing. Where ink is pale it will generally 
be found to have been froien, which quite spoils 
it. In such cases it is preferable, if good ink 
is not at hand, to use lead pencil. We would 
not be understood as encouraging the use of the 
lead pencil, but in such cases it is the lesser evil. 


Some of the finest autographs yet re- 
ceived have come to us recently, and 
are now being cut by our engravers. 
The following named parties send us 
the best : 

Fred B. Chandler, Penman and Card 
Writer, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

W. H. Gardner, Principal Public 
School, Hanover, 111. 

J. D. Malone, Smyrna, Ga. 

George Blake, Black Earth, Wis. 

E. A. Morgan, Valparaiso, Ind. 

O. D. Miller, Medford, Wis. 

A. W. Morse, Boston underwriters' 
office, 114 La Salle Street, Chicago. 

G. N. Wilson, Bairdstown, Ga. 

C. E. Rust, Brandon, Vt. 

E. D. Sledge, Athens, Ga. 

R. L. Hovis, Old Furnace, N. C. 

Chas. J. Hunter, Fairfield, Wis. 

Frank Humble, Circleville, Ohio. 

C. B. Ward, Fort Fairfield, Maine. 

W. F. Wingate, 20 West Harrison 
Street, Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Charles B. Clark, Ludlow, Vt. 

Charles H. Hewett, with Powers & 
Wrightman, chemists, Ninth and Parish 
Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. W. Seaman, Buffalo Cross Roads, 
Union Co., Pa. 

S. C. Malone, Fairmount, W. Va. 

W. F. Fowler, Painesville, Ohio. 

Charles Gray, Talleyrand, Iowa. 

Charles A. Ellis, Bradford, Mass. 

J. H. Gaston, Bellaire, Ohio. 

J. F. Stubblefield, Murray. Ky. 

E. B. Stowe, Stockton, Cal. 

Miss Mary H. Thompson, East Point, 

G. E. Hammond, Middlebury, Vt. 

All autographs accepted for publica- 
tion will hereafter be noticed on this 
P^B^- ^^^^^^^^^^ 

We mail this number of the Gazette 
to several newspapers, in which we have 
advertised our Compendium regularly, 
for several seasons, in the hope that they 
will notice the paper. Gaskell's Com- 
pendium is now used by nearly one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand persons^ and is by 
far the most popular system in the world. 
This army of self-teaching learners has 
demanded a penman's paper, conducted 
expressly for them. This demand the 
Penman's Gazette aims to supply. It 
is the only paper of its kind, but one, 
published, and has a larger number of 
subscribers already than many of the 
old-established weeklies. 

Ladles* Uosaip. 

Long trains are narrow and pointed. 

Maltese lace is superseding Chantilly. 

New York has a cooking-school fever. 

Double capes are put on a new style 
of coat. 

" Lawn" tennis is driving croquet from 
the parlor. 

Jersey waists of open work silk are 
now imported. 

Evening caps of lace and plush are 
very fashionable. 

The late Madame Thiers was very 
beautiful in her youth. 

Small buttons are preferred for silk 
and wool basques. 

Photograph frames are now made of 
hand-painted velvet. 

New York is organizing itself into 
private dancing classes. 

Dark Pompeian red is the favorite 
shade for colored candles. 

Madame Adam leads the literary world 
in France just now. 

The blue daisy is the favorite flower 
of the florists just now. 

A chenille fringe makes the prettiest 
collar for a street jacket. 

Little satin-lined shoulder capes are 

English brides now wear the veil 
drawn back from the face. 

Scarfs of India plaid silk are worn 
with Jersey skating costumes. 

Artificial plants and vines do duty at 
many parties and weddings. 

Girls in a livery are substituted for 
footmen in some English families. 

Labradorite, a rather rare stone, is 
cut into cats' heads for scarf pins. 

Lace is not worn with the velvet collars 
ancTcuffb in the dauphin style. 

New York does not approve of high 
tea, but Philadelphia delights in it. 

The prettiest bags to wear with dresses 
are finished with three tassels. 

Puffings of white lace form the upper 
half of sleeves for evening dress. 

Strips of colored gauze, bordered by 
satin, are made up into pretty ties. 

Boots buttoned very far back at the 
sides are the next novelty, it is said. 

Narrow gold lace is mixed with Chan- 
tilly and white Mechlin to trim ties. 

Sultana shoes, laced on the side to 
show the stocking, are in favor in Paris. 

Turkish embroideries on linen are com- 
bined with brocade in the new screens. 

Heavy black silk is preferred to the 
satin finished stuffs for half mourning 

New York makes its Christmas cakes 
in the shape of an obelisk this year. 

Small tile screens are used by English 
women to conceal an unused fireplace. 

The Princess of Wales is wearing 
waves, instead of little curis, on the fore- 

Sugar-plum boxes, looking like rolls of 
sash ribbon, are rather tantalizing to the 

Very few basques are left plain in front. 
Some are cut into points and some into 

Elbow sleeves are now made with a 
cuff covered with white lace and slightly 

Ziblinette is the name of one of the 
new feather trimmings. It is pretty, but 
very fragile. 

Side draperies are very slightly puffed 
when worn, and are fastened by a large 
bow in the back. 


A Hint to Letter Writers. 

It is a letter writing age, as we can 
plainly see by reading the statistics of 
our wonderful postal service for any cur- 
rent year. To appreciate this in its mag- 
nitude, one needs but to walk through 
the magnificent palace built for the 
New York post office, and see the tons 
of mail matter received and sent out 
with such clock work regularity. 

To write a good letter is an excellent 
accomplishment, but one needs caution 
even when he knows how, that nothing 
shall be sent off which will afterward 
cause a sigh of regret. Young people, 
in particular, should be wary in regard 
to what they say on paper of a strictly 
personal nature, for there it stands over 
their signature for a lifetime, maybe, 
and no chance of calling it back when 
once it has left your hand. The time 
may come when you would gladly pay 
money to get back a letter in which you 
made some sharp criticism or related 
some unpleasant story with regard to 
another. Such things have a most un- 

comfortable way of cc 
just the wrong person, 
by one who will make 
mischief out of it. 

nd to 

nd being 

SneoessM — or Kot. 


It was said in these columns last 
month that, to the vast majority of men 
and women who have passed middle 
age, their lives seem to be comparative 
failures. They feel that they have not 
done the thing they meant to do ; they 
have not reached the heights they meant 
to scale. Yet, is not this feeling, or 
conviction, in very many cases due to 
the fact that the successes of their lives, 
whatever they may be, have come to 
them so slowly, by such almost imper- 
ceptible degrees, that they have hardly 
been conscious of their approach ? 

Wealth, for instance, save in most ex- 
ceptional cases, comes to no man in a 
day, or a week, or a year. As a rule, it 
comes, if it comes at all, little by little, 
as the result of patient, persistent labor, 
and slow accumulation. Remember, we 
are speaking now of the great mass of 
men who are engaged in business, or in- 
dustrial pursuits ; not of a few whose 
Midas-like touch, with subtle alchemy, 
turns everything 

your Tom — brave, manly, earnest fellow 
that he is, God bless him ! — would be 
able and willing to drop down to your 
old scale of expenditure, and to take up 
the burden of life just as you did, if he 
saw the necessity for it ; in other 
words, if the whole system of family 
living to which he has been accustomed 
were, for some good reason, to drop in 
the same ratio. 

But to go back. Tom is in college, 
and Bess must have a piano ; and pretty 
Nell — dainty blossom that she is, the 
very apple of her father's eye — has deli- 
cate fancies and lovely tastes that you 
are only too glad to indulge ; and the 
younger children have needs innumer- 
able ! And there is the sweet mother 
of them all — shall she not have the 
fresh, bright surroundings, the exquisite 
china, the pictures and jewels, in which 
she takes delight? And shall you not 
have your fine horses, and your Alder- 
ney cows, your books, your newspapers, 
your well appointed table, and your 
choice cigars ? Then there is the church 
debt, and the subscription to the library 
fund, and the daily charities, and the 
life insurance. There is the trip to 




ry community 
: dote on mischief. 
J know the one in 
and I 


know several here. 
But I don't prize their 
society. They are 
very persuasive. They 
will coax your friend 
out of that letter "just 

thus the seed is sown, 
and the harvest will 
be as sure as that of 
the Canada thistle. 
Be quite cautious what 
you write to the dis- 
paragement of any 

And angry letters, 
too, are always bad. 
They never made any 
one better, but have 

often sti 

ed up 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1 of Off-Hand Penmatibhip was done by 

Dennis, now Teacher of Penmanship in Wright 

whole society, setting every one " by 
the ears." Somebody has given this ad- 
vice to an angry person who has just de- 
cided to " sit down and give that person 
a piece of his mind." Write the letter, 
put in every ugly, spiteful thing you can 
think of. Free your mind, make it as 
strong as you please. Then read it over, 
to get the full force of it, and just drop 
it into the fire to save your postage. It 
will be one of the wisest savings of your i 
life. But, as you value your piece of 
mind, never send it. It will very likely 
pass from hand to hand as a specimen ' 
of you, and will always be read to your 
great discredit, | 

Write always as pleasantly as you can 
of matters that will interest your corre- \ 
spondent, and make your letters a real 
joy whenever they come into a house- 

Such letter writers are not too many 

in the world, and they are much sought 

after. It is practice of the right kind 

that makes one truly accomplished. ; 

Olive Gray. 


Dennis' Specimen on this page 
of the finest we have ever re- 

Meanwhile, as means accumulate, so 
do wants. Alas ! they accumulate faster 
to most of us. The man has married, 
probably ; and there are little mouths to 
be filled, little bodies to be clothed, little 
minds to be fed, little souls to be nur- 
tured. The small house is outgrown ; 
the small ways seem mean and insignifi- 
cant. And so the years go on. The 
children grow larger and their impor- 
tunate needs grow with them. Tom is 
in college, and you — pardon the change 
in the pronoun ! our talk seems to be 
growing personal — you want him to be 
as well dressed, as well cared for as his 
comrades. You fear that it would hurt 
him, would dwarf him, perhaps, to lead 
a pinched, scrimped life, as compared 
with others about him. You were 
pinched when you were a boy, very 
likely — and you do not know that it 
hurt you. But Tom — it is different 
with Tom, somehow ! 

Yes ; no doubt it is — for he has been 
differently brought up. Your father on 
a small farm, or in the workshop, or in 
the country store, or out of a scanty 
salary, did for you the best he could ; 
made as many sacrifices for you — more, 
perhaps, than you make for Tom. And 

Europe, perhaps, and the summer vaca- 
tion by the sea or at the mountains. 

No wonder that the surplus does not 
grow very rapidly, that the yearly addi- 
tions to the growing fortune are not 
large. Neither are the rings large upon 
the growing tree, yet slowly and surely, 
if no untoward fate uproots it before its 
time, it reaches a goodly size at last, and 
the birds of the air build nests upon its 

But, my friend, in balancing your ac- 
counts, in reckoning up what the suc- 
cesses of your life have been, even 
money making, ought you not to take 
into account what you have spent, as 
well as what you have accumulated ? 
You cannot eat your cake and keep it 
too ; and if it does you, and those you 
love, more good to eat it than to keep 
it, do not fret that you were unable to 
do both. Ail the delights of the beauti- 
ful home you have builded up, all that 
you and yours have enjoyed within its 
walls, all the advantages you have been 
able to give to your children, all that 
you have given to noble charities, all the 
growth, the uplifting, the expansion, that 
has been the result of money earned and 
wisely spent — all these must be entered 

upon your ledger, and added up, col- 
umn by column, before you should dare 
to say what is the fortune the years have 
brought to you. 

But if wealth comes so slowly that a 
man's desires and ambitions are always 
in advance of it, it is generally true that 
political honors and literary reputation 
comes still more slowly. But ah ! how 
fast they are outgrown, or grown away 
from ! When a man is twenty-five he 
thinks it a brave feather in his cap to be 
elected petit juror, lister, or town clerk. 
To be selectman, _^rsf selectman, what 
magnificence is that ! By and by these 
things begin to look small to him. He 
would be town representative, or even 
State senator. How long do these bub- 
bles remain large enough to fill the 
round of his desires? He would go to 
Congress ; he would be chairman of the 
committee of ways and means ; he 
would be speaker of the House. Con- 
tent, now ? There is the Senate yet to 
conquer ; and beyond that the cabinet 
— even the presidency ! The river grows 
as it goes. It swells and broadens and 
deepens. But when it is a mighty cur- 
rent, sweeping on, silent and resistless, to 
the sea, bearing upon 
its broad bosom the 
fleets and commerce of 
many nations and 
many climes, it may 
well be questioned 
whether it feels any 
grander, has any keen- 
er sense of its own im- 
portance, or is any 
better satisfied with it- 
self, or with the work 
it is doing, than when 
it was a noisy, bab- 
bling brook, playing 
with the reeds and the 

The man who reach- 
es the summit of poli- 
tical or literary prefer- 
ment does not do it at 
a bound. If he did, 
he might well stand on 
the far, clear heights, 
„ - „„ with an exultant thrill 

s Business College, 

at his heart and a 
■ ■ ■ - ■ - ■ shout of triumph on 

his tongue, rejoicing in his strength. But 
he does not soar up. He has no tireless 
wings to bear him on his way. He climbs 
up inch by inch, step by step, fastening 
his feet to the rugged rocks, hanging 
suspended over sheer precipices, cling- 
ing to overhanging branches, to tufts of 
moss, to the reeds shaken by the wind. 
He is beaten upon by the storms, hin- 
dered by the tempests, blinded by the 
lightning. Weil is it for him if, when he 
reaches the top, he is not so worn and 
wearied, so battered and bruised, as to 
lie spent and breathless, longing for the 
peaceful calm. 

Yet, if he has not lost himself — his 
manhood, his nobleness of thought and 
life, his honor and his truth — in the 
hard struggle, shall he not rejoice that 
he has won what men call success ? It is 
good to walk on mountains, even though 
they be rough. 

"God's crosses stand on hills," she said ; 
(There came a glory on her face.) 

" God's dead in secret graves are laid ; 
God's princes nile from secret place," 

A great deal of time is contracted 
1 opportunity — which is the flower of 


Thou iBtMl be true ihyidr. 

If ihou (h< truth wouUrt Uaeh ; 

The Mwl mwt ovcrilow If ihoo 
Anoihcr** Mul wouUu retch ; 

1 1 need* ihe oveHlow of heart 


Think truljr. and ihjr thoucha 
Shall Ihe wi>rid'i bmine f«ed ; 

Spc»k truly. Mad c*ch vord of thine 
Shall b« a fruitful *eed; 

Live truly, and thy Hfc ■httl b« 

One Hundred FonndH Reward. 

I had been six years a surgeon in the 
navy, and for the last two of those six 
years I had been cruising on that dread- 
ful Gold Coast. Perhaps I was not the 
best tempered man in the service, but I 
thought I was badly treated. The ad- 
miralty and I had a slight disagreement, 
and the end was that I threw up my 
commission in disgust. My health was 
much broken, and, while I was recruit- 
ing my strength in a little Devon village, 
I did the one thing which I have never 
regretted — fell in love with a good girl 
and married her. I had a certain 
amount of money, which I invested in 
a country practice ; and for some time 
all went well with us. But we were not 
to escape our share of trouble. My 
health, which had suffered more seriously 
than I imagined during my period of 
service, broke down ; my practice went 
to the dogs ; we got deeply into debt ; 
and, to make a long story short, three 
years after our marriage, one miserable 
Sunday in November found my wife 
and myself, with our two little children, 
occupying a single i>oor room in Gren- 
ville Street, off Guildford Street. We 
had then been in London about six 
months, and I had been unable — chiefly 
on account of my precarious health — to 
get anything to do. 

About a month, however, before the 
day I speak of, my only friend in London 
had held out a hope of obtaining for me 
the post of private physician to a wealthy 
relation. But my friend had been com- 
pelled suddenly to go abroad, . and 
though he was daily expected back, yet 
three weeks had now passed, and I had 
gone to his house in Kensington day 
after day without getting any tidings of 
him. Meanwhile our little stock of 
money was quite exhausted ; everything 
that could be spared was sold or 
pawned ; and on this Sunday evening, 
with a month's rent due next day, my 
wife and I sat before a miserable apology 
for a fire, with absolute want staring us 
in the face. We had not quite a shilling 
left, and when I looked at my sleeping 
children and thought of the future, I 
fairly broke down in utter despair. It 
was then I found what a treasure I had 
in the noble woman by my side. Affect- 
ing a cheerfulness which she could not 
feel, she imparted to me a portion of her 
own courage, and at length induced me 
— anxious to please her and glad to do 
anything rather than sit powerless — to 
go once more to my friend's house. 

It was ten o'clock, on a cold, drizzling 
night, when I set out on my walk. I 
somehow felt a kind of fictitious hope- 
fulness, and walked briskly, resolutely 
shutting out the thought of failure. I 
stood some time at my friend's door be- 
fore I dared to ring the bell that would 
change my hopes or my fears into cer- 
tainty ; and when at last the servant 
who answered my ring told me that her 

master had not yet returned, I fairly 
sUggered into a chair in the hall, over- 
come with disappointment. The woman, 
seeing my condition, brought me a little 
! brandy, which revived me somewhat ; 
j but it was some time before I felt able 
1 to move, and it struck midnight as I left 
the door for my long and cheerless walk. 
The rain fell in a steady drizzle, but 
though I was lightly clad I never heeded 
it ; my thoughts were fixed on my poor 
wife sitting alone and watching for me, 
and on the wretched news I was bring- 
ing her. I walked on, heedless of the 
bitter cold and of the constant rain, 
feeling the numbness of misery in my 

How it happened I do not know, but 
somehow I lost my way, and after wan- 
dering aimlessly for some time, I found 
that I was in a street I did not know — 
the Gray's Inn Road, as I afterwards 
learned. I could see no one to direct 
me, and was walking on rather anxiously 
when I stumbled over the form of a man, 
who was lying half in and half out of 
the covered entrance of a wretched 
court. For a few yards I walked, too 
much absorbed in my own troubles to 
think of anything else ; but then, thank 
God ! I thought of the unfortunate man 
lying in the rain, and as a doctor, felt, 
more strongly perhaps than I otherwise 
should, that it was my duty to go back 
and assist him if possible. There was 
a gas lamp in the entrance to the court, 
and by it I was enabled to see that the 
prostrate figure was that of a singularly 
tall and powerfully built man ; and on 
a closer inspection I was surprised to 
find that his dress was that of a gentle- 
man. At once I thought he had been 
robbed and perhaps murdered ; but, 
taking his hand to feel his pulse, I saw 
that he had a remarkably handsome 
diamond ring on his finger ; and the 
beating of his puise, though very faint, 
showed me that he was not dead. 

Then I thought, with something of 
contempt, that I had a case of mere 
drunkenness to deal with ; but yet on 
careful examination I could detect no 
fume of spirits, and the faint action of 
his heart at length convinced me that 
the man was in a state of complete ex- 
haustion, probably from want of food. 

With considerable labor, in my weak 
condition, I managed — half lifting, half 
dragging him — to convey him into the 
covered passage, and determined to stay 
with him until some passer-by would 
assist me. I had not waited long when 
a half tipsy woman, walking past, looked 
into the passage and came over to see 
what was the matter. She looked keenly 
at me and at my unconscious patient, 
and I noticed her eye gleam as she 
caught sight of a massive gold chain on 

I asked her to go at once and fetch 
assistance, but she immediately replied 
that I need not trouble myself any fur- 
ther — " I know him well : he's Rooney 
that owns the public house close by ; 
I'll get him home all right." 

At first her assurance almost imposed 
upon me, but when I looked at the pale, 
aristocratic face that I supported on my 
knee, I felt convinced that she had in- 
vented the story with a view to plunder- 
ing the helpless man. I told her sternly 
that if she did not go for a policeman I 
would do so myself. She went off hur- 
riedly — as I thought, for that purpose — 
but came back no more ; and now I 

was once more alone with my strange 
patient, and as the minutes went by I 
knew not what to do. 

Help, however, was near. I noticed 
a poor girl — she did not look more than 
sixteen — walking slowly on the other 
side of the street ; I called to her, and 
after a moment's hesitation she came 
over. I briefly explained to her the cir- 
cumstances, and asked her, if she possi- 
bly could, to get me a drop of cordial, 
or the man would die. 

" I have only got fourpence," she said, 
in a kindly Irish voice, "and I was go- 
ing to pay for my bed with that at the 
kitchen in Fulwood's Rents ; but, sure, 
I'll get something from the chemist in- 
stead, and I'll trust to God for a night's 
lodging — I've slept out before now." 
And away she went — surely not the 
worst of good Samaritans. 

Very soon she returned with the medi- 
cine, and I sent her again to fetch a 
policeman. I forced a little between 
the man's teeth, and presently he came 
to and opened his eyes. I asked him 
how he came there: he said, "Tired 
and starving." And then I asked him 
where he came from, and he suddenly 
brightened up, and looking keenly at 
me for a moment, said, *' Edinburgh ;" 
but from the way he said it, I felt con- 
vinced he was deceiving me, and shortly 
after asked the same question again, and 
he, with the same look, said, " Glasgow." 

In his weak state, however, I forebore 
questioning him further, and a police- 
man presently coming up, we got him 
into a cab and took him to the hospital, 
where I waited until he was put to bed. 
Before I left, I asked the house surgeon 
to give a shilling to the poor girl — Mary 
Kennedy was her name. He readily 
did so, and she went off to sleep in 
"Old Walter's" lodging house in Ful- 
wood's Rents. 

When at last I got home, I found my 
wife waiting anxiously for me. How- 
ever, when I told my story she forgave 
the delay, and in talking over the strange 
circumstances of the night we forgot for 
the time our own troubles. My wife in- 
sisted that something good would come 
out of the matter, and at eight o'clock 
next morning she roused me and made 
me set off for the hospital. As I was 
on my way there, my eye was caught by 
an advertisement on a hoarding : 

"A gentleman of unsound mind has escaped 

from the M Private Asylum. The above 

reward will be paid to any person finding him 
and restoring him to his friends." 

Then followed a description which ex- 
actly tallied with the appearance of my 
patient. Everything was now clear to 
me, and I fairly ran to the hospital. 

Here, however, my hopes were damped, 
for I found that Policeman Z had gone 
there before me and told a story very 
different from the true one which I have 
narrated, and had actually gone the 
length of warning the authorities against 
me. The solicitor whose address was 
given in the advertisement had been 
sent for, and the worthy constable had 
evidently determined to brazen it out 
and secure the j^ioo. I saw the house 
surgeon, and told him the whole story. 
He thought for a few moments, and 
then said, "We must get that girl at 

I went myself immediately to the 
wretched den where she had stopped, 
and brought her back with me. A very 

short examination before the solicitor 
settled Policeman Z's case ; and an 
hour afterward I was able to go back to 
my wife with more money in my pocket 
than I had had for many a long day. 

But that was not the best of it. I 
visited my patient — who was no other 
than the wealthy baronet, Sir Charles 
Frampton — every day. He seemed to 
take a strong liking for me, and when 
he was well enough to be moved, his 
friends proposed that I should take him 
under my care. He was perfectly harm- 
less, and after residing abroad with us 
for a couple of years, he so far recov- 
ered that he was enabled to dispense 
with my services, and to manage his 
own affairs. He showed his gratitude, 
however, in most princely fashion ; set- 
tled an annuity on poor Mary Kennedy 
(she had previously been liberally re- 
warded by his friends), and bought me 
the practice which I still hold. From 
that day everything has prospered with 
me, and I am now rich enough to leave 
the work to my eldest son, and amuse 
myself in writing some of the curious 
incidents of my life, not the least 
strange of which is the providential 
occurrence in the Gray's Inn Road. 
A. M. 

Bales of Conduct. 


Never point at another. 
Never betray a confidence. 
Never wantonly frighten others. 
Never leave home with unkind words 
Never neglect to call upon youi 

Never laugh at the misfortu 



Never give a promise that you do not 
fulfil. ■ 

Never send a present hoping for one 
in return. 

Never speak much of your own per- 

Never fail to be punctual at the time 

Never pick your teeth or clean your 
nails in company. 

Never make yourself the hero of your 
own story. 

Never fail to give a polite answer to 
a civil question. 

Never question a servant or child 
about family matters. 

Never present a gift saying that it is 
of no use to yourself. 

Never fail, if a gentleman, of being 
civil and polite to ladies. 

Never read letters which you may 
find addressed to others. 

Never associate with bad company. 
Have good company or none. 

Never call attention to the features or 
form of anyone present. 

Never look over the shoulder of an- 
other who is reading or writing. 

Never refer to a gift you have made 
or favor you have rendered. 

Never appear to notice a scar or de- 
formity of any one present. 

Never arrest the attention of an ac- 
quaintance by a touch. Speak to him. 

Never punish your child for a fault 
to which you are addicted yourself. 

Never answer questions in general 
company that have been put to others. 

Never, when traveling abroad, be over- 
boastful in praise of your own country. 


"Selectloiu for Aotograpb and Writing 

We give below a few extracts from 
Mr. Lilley's new book of this name, as 
showing what a handy little volume it is 
for young people who have occasion to 
do that kind of writing. 


I wish that no flattery may ever desecrate this 
album; that no falsehood may darken its white- 
ness; but that the spirit of truth, light and love 
may brighten its fair pages. 

I wish that she whose name it bears may 
never know the treachery of friendship, the blight 
of unreciprocal affection ; hut with what measure 
of love she metes, it shall be measured to her 
again. 1 wish that these leaves, as spotless as 
her own true heart, may receive only the impress 
of kindness and benevolence, and that buds of 
promise may cluster here that shall burst in blos- 
soms of beauty. I wish that in after years, when 
the fingers that traced these lines shall be motion- 
iess, and memory and sadness, hand in hand, 
shall look back to the things that were, these 
offerings may be a medium by which her faith 
may climb to the eternal sphere where reunion 
shall be and endure forever. 


Will one wandering though) of thine 
Rest in its rapid flighl on mc. 

Nor to forgetfulness consign 
The friend who oft will think of ihee' 

Yc*I sure thy memory oft will fly 
To scenes that once were dear to thee 

Thou, smiling, mayst remember me. 

Now just let me think and I'll give 
Shall it be nonsense or shall it be » 

It is reported that James Keene, the 
millionaire, is to present the City of New 
York with a statue of Nathan Hale, to 
be erected on the spot where the hero 
was hanged. 

Art and Dress. 

Scarcely of less import than sex and 
age arc the height, size, and general pro- 
portions of the figure. Tall and stumpy 
people cannot, with impunity, be dressed 
in one pattern. The stately lady, sweep- 
ing through marble halls, can gracefully 
carry queenly robes that would crush 
the pretty little lady dwelling in a cot- 
tage. The present inclination is to treat 
dress as drapery, and to consider the 
one as simply utilitarian, and the other, 
as if of necessity, supremely artistic. 
The points of the figure are used as pegs 
whereon to hang out decorative fabrics, 
and possibly Sartor Resartus might stig- 
matize our living ladies as lay figures, 
and our intelligent men as stalking 
clothes-horses. Some dresses are for 
sitting or standing only, some for walk- 
ing, while others reduce the free action 
of the figure to physical endurance. 

A lady, making a morning call, was 
asked to take a seat, but she begged to 
be excused, because, having on " a walk- 
ing costume," she could not sit down. 
Yet nature, in building up the human 
framework, had a more extended scheme, 
which fashion would do well not so re- 
lentlessly to thwart. As to the length of 
a dress, that will depend on whether the 
feet are of a beauty deemed to be worth 
displaying ; if inviting to catch a glimpse 
of, they will probably be permitted, " like 
little mice, to peep in and out ;" hence 
some ladies " wear gowns always short, 
when other people's are long, and go 
about holding them up above the highest 
watermark in fine weather." 

The shoulders, which call for at least 
as much anxious care as the feet, admit 
of various decorations, as witli scarf, 
shawl, -mantilla, veil, robe, toga. "A 
black scarf carries an air of respect, 
which is in itself protection. A woman 
thus attired glides on her way like a 
small, close-reefed vessel, light and trim, 
seeking no encounter, but prepared for 
one. Much, however, depends on the 
wearer ; indeed, no article of dress is 
such a revealer of the character. Some 
women will drag it tight up to their 
shoulders, and stick out their elbows in 
defiance beneath. Such are of the in- 
dependent class, with strong opinions ; 
others let it hang loose and listless like 
an idle sail, losing all the beauty of the 
outline — both moral and physical. Such 
ladies have usually no opinions at all, 
but none the less a very obstinate will 
of their own." 

A real lady hits by intuition the happy 
mean ; she does not " put on a turban to 
drink tea with two people, or an inno- 
cent white frock for a party of two hun- 
dred;" she does not appear as a milliner 
popped out of a band-box, or as an ar- 
tist just stepped from a picture, or as an 
antiquary kept usually as a curiosity un- 
der a glass case. She moves at respect- 
ful distance from the extremes of fash- 
ion, and though society does not know 
what she has on, she is not in danger of 
being mistaken for either Aspasia or 
Queen Anne. What she wears, though 
perchance homely, is always good ; not 
a scrap of tinsel or trumpery appears 
upon her; "she deals in no gaudy con- 
fusion of colors, nor does she affect a 
studied sobriety ; but she either refreshes 
you with a spirited contrast or composes 
you with a judicious harmony." And 
the secret of her success simply consists 
in her "knowing the three grand unities 

of dress — her own station, her own age. 
and her own points. And no woman 
can dress well who does not." — Good 

Foreign Items. 

Great political agitation reigns in 


The Turkish navy is in a much better 
condition than its army. 

The English army estimates for the 
coming year exceed ^20,000,000. 

Several more members of the land 
league have been arrested in Ireland. 

It is announced that woman suffrage 
has been established in the Isle of Man. 

The Irish land league and the Brit- 
ish government are now brought face to 
face in the law courts. 

In China, Japan, Malacca, and gener- 
ally on the coast of Africa, silver is the 
currency universally employed. 

The ships Cape Sable and Wild Rose 
both foundered at sea with their crews, 
consisting of eighty-five men, all lost. 

Chinese trade with the United States is 
increasing rapidly in the line of cotton 
piece goods and many other articles. 

British regiments are being ordered to 
Africa, and transported as fast as steam- 
ships can be supplied for that purpose. 

The new German census is expected 
to reach the aggregate of 45,000,000, or 
6,000,000 less than that of the United 

A missionary writes, that he knows of 
no place where vice is so open and un- 
blushing in character as it is in Hong- 

The British government has entered 
into contract with the Gower-Bell d 
pany for a million dollars' worth of 

The ship Indian Chief was wrecked 
near the entrance to the Thames River, 
England, recently, and eighteen per- 
sons were drowned. 

Two agents of landlords are reported 
to have been murdered in the western 
counties of Ireland, where the local 
police force is to be increased. 

Hindoo girls, to the number of 3,000, 
in connection with the American board's 
mission in southern India and Ceylon, 
are receiving a Christian education. 

The artillery stationed at Dublin, Ire- 
land, are prohibited from marching into 
the adjacent country for exercise, with- 
out a suitable escort of cavalry or in- 

The Greeks have called out the re- 
serves and national guards, and now 
have an effective army of over 80 
men, but Turkey beats them all hollow 

Mr. Parnell and other agitators p 
pose to remain in London as long 
Parliament sits, and declare openly that 
they defy arrest. They say coercion will 
be stoutly resisted. 

A clockmaker at Birmingham has in- 
formed the Russian embassy at London 
of an alleged Nihilist plot to construct 
infernal machines in England for use in 

The Boers are crowding the English 
in South Africa, and the troops at the 
command of British officers are entirely 
too small in number to enable them to 
hold their position. 

Previous to the issue of the war office 
circular, directing a strict guard about 
the armories of volunteers, over a hun- 
dred rifles were stolen from one place 
in the vicinity of London. 

The Portuguese government has deter- 
mined upon founding agricultural colo- 
nies of Europeans in Angola, and the 
customs duties levied upon wine and 
spirits are to be set aside for that pur- 

Many Jersey cattle are being pur- 
chased for exportation to the United 
States, according to a cable dispatch from 
St. Helier, which is the capital of the 
Island of Jersey. High prices are being 

A new socialistic secret organization, 
extending all over Germany, has just 
been discovered, and bids fair to give 
the government considerable trouble. 
Nihilism, which is the same thing, is not 
confined to Russia. 

Reports from Ireland say, that not- 
withstanding the troops are kept very 
close in barracks, slight quarrels between 
them and the local population are hourly 
occurring. Were the city under martial 
law, it would present no more of a mili- 
tary aspect. The troubles in the west- 
ern counties are rather increasing than 
subsiding, and all seems gloomy and 

In country districts where the crops 
have failed in Russia, the state will ad- 
vance seed and execute public works. 
In the southeastern provinces two rail- 
ways will be constructed. The State has 
reserved to itself the exclusive. right to 
construct railways, and has decided to 
suppress all concessions of land coming 
under the head of imperial favors. 

The island of Cyprus has been flooded. 

In Cuba there is a little insect, the 
nigua, which enters the human skin, and, 
building a nest underneath, deposits its 
eggs. It is so small as to require a 
microscope to detect it. They cause 
intense itching, and, of course, poison 
the flesh where they enter. 

A man in McDonald County, Missouri, 
is said to possess a " natural kaleido- 
scope." It is a dark green stone, nearly 
transparent, about the size of a turkey's 
egg, and nearly that shape and somewhat 
rough. By holding it to the light and 
looking through it, magnificent views 
of scenery can be obtained — Indians 
chasing buffalo, moving caravans of 
camels, fields of waving grass, mountain 
scenery, cities and villages, vast stretches 
of prairie, etc. It was found in Buffalo 
Creek, near the home of its owner. 

" Mr. O'Rafferty," said the recorder, 
'why did you strike Mr. Murphy?" 
" Because Murphy would not give me a 
civil answer to a civil question, yer 
honor." " What was the civil question 
you asked him ? " " Asked him, as 
polite as you please, ' Murphy, ain't your 
own brother the biggest thafe on Galves- 
ton Island, excepting yourself and your 
uncle, who is absent at the penitentiary 
in Huntsville ? ' " " And what rude an- 
swer did he give to such a very civil 
question?" "He said to me, 'Ave 
course, prisint coompany excepted.' So 
I said, ' Murphy, you are another,' and 
sthruck him wid me fist." 





y pc«m ^dins w a dub of ///«« ,m 

umc of over five hundred paEct, lupei 

ever published lliii work hai been p: 
liiotuanda of dolUri. The lilhofcraphic 
of prnmamhip. the hints on tcachins wr 
punciiiaikm. u>e of capitals, c 

*. book.k 

The price of ih>» edition of the book is $S.50. 


At •evenly-fivc cents och. we will mail TQWNSEND'S 
and handsome manual, price $i,SO. 


No deviation tn any case from 




I. W. Pierson is now teaching in the 
Cohimbus (Ohio) Business College. 

C. B. Ward has been teaching this 
winter at St. John, New Brunswick. 

V. E. Lindsey is now keeping books 
for a firm in Cleveland, Ohio. 

We shall be glad to hear from Riley 
T. Scott. We miss his handsome writ- 

J. C. Brower is doing a good business 
in ornamental penmanship at Rochester, 
N. Y. 

v.. U. Stone is teaching penmanship 
with much success at Stockton, Cal. 
He is one of the best writers in that 

L, Madarasz, of San Antonio, Texas, 
has recently had a card writing stand at 
the Grand Central Hotel, New York. 
He is now in Jersey City. 

F. B. Chandler, of Salt Lake City, 
sends us several very fine specimens of 
fashionable card writing — quite as well 
done as those at the East. 

L, S. Thompson, formerly editor of 
the Teacher of Penmanship, is now pro- 
fessor of industrial art at Perdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Ind. 

F. B. Davis, until recently a teacher 
of penmanship at Cady & Walworth's 
Business College, Union Square, New 
York City, is now open for an engage- 

Tennyson desires to visit America. 

Madame Thiers leaves an immense 

The Princess of Wales has just passed 
her thirty-sixth birthday. 

The Czar of Russia has quite a mania 
as an autograph collector. 

Cadet Whittaker is still under con- 
: sideration. His case was lately fully 
I discussed at a cabinet meeting. 

William H. Vanderbilt, on Christmas 
I Day, made each daughter a present of 

looo shares of Lake Shore stock. 
I A Mrs. Hatton is at the head of the 
, Tennessee State Library. She and her 
I daughter keep its 20,000 volumes in ex- 
cellent order. 
I The Rev. H. H. Hayden, the alleged 
' murderer of Mary Stannard, is now 
working for the Folding Chair Com- 
pany in New Haven. 

Gen. McClellan has declined the 
presidency of the New York Under- 
ground Railroad Company, and will go 
abroad with his family in April. 

The ex-Confederate General Loring, 
who served in the Egyptian army after 
the Rebellion, is a candidate for United 
States senator from Florida, 

The King of Italy is about to visit 
Paris and London incognito as the Count 
of Pavia. He will be the guest of the 
Prince of Wales while in London. 

Ex-Queen Isabella is said to be very 
generous to the poor in Paris. But 
where does the money come from ? 
That's the question which puzzles the 

The Empress of Austria has given up 
her proposed winter visit to Ireland. 
She could withstand the cold weather 
there, but not civil war. No sport in 

Gen. Ord is going to engage in busi- 
ness in Mexico, where his son-in-law. 
Gen. Trevino, is now secretary of war. 
The general's pay, as a retired officer, 
is about $4,000. 

The King of Spain made a very good 
speech at the opening of the Cortes the 
other day, promising lots of nice things, 
but all know what Spanish promises 
amount to. 

Christine Nilsson has been dining 
with ex-Empress Isabella at Paris. She 
sang a Swedish melody for the hostess 
on the occasion, which was probably 
what she was invited for. The ex-Em- 
press is as fat as ever. 

ent eisi 


Gallia Academy. Gallipolis, Ohio, un- 
^er the management of Prof. Henry 
Collins, is. we understand, having in- 
creased patronage. We would call Mr. 
Collins' attention to the autographs of 
his now being used in Tracy & Co.'s 

WUo Snjin^. 

Beauty, God's handwriting. — Hosea 

Fame, the perfume of heroic deeds. — 

Felicity that causes pain gives double 
delight. — Gratian. 

If a word be worth one shekel, silence 
is worth two. — Ifebrctv Prm^erb. 

We can do more good by being good 
than in any other way. — Rowland Hill. 

There never was yet a great man un- 
less through divine inspiration. — Cicero. 

Opportunity is rare, and wise men will 
never let it go by heedlessly. — Bayard 

The hate which we all bear with the 
I most Christian patience, is the hate of 
those who envy us, — Colton. 

Never get a reputation for a small 
perfection if you are trying for fame in 
a loftier area. — Bulwer Lytton. 

Women are indebted to us for most of 
their faults ; we are indebted to them for 
most of our merits. — Lemesle. 

He that deceives his neighbor with 
lies is unjust to him, and cheats him out 
of the truth, to which he has a natural 
right. — M. Aurel. 

Sense can support himself handsomely, 
in most countries, for some eighteen 
pence a day; but fantasy, planets and 
solar systems will not suffer. — Carlyle. 

We are taught to clothe our minds as 
we do our bodies, after the fashion in 
vogue ; and it is accounted fantastical- 
ness, or something worse, not to do so. — 

The man who farms his brains to their 
full extent year after year, and does not 
believe in occasional fallowing, will find 
at last that brains, like land, will run out. 
— GreviUe. 

Religion in a magistrate strengthens 
his authority, because it purchases ven- 
eration, and gains reputation to it. In 
all the affairs of the world, so much rep- 
utation is in reality so much power. — 

The bird of wisdon flies low and seeks 
her food under the hedges ; the eagle 
himself would be starved if he always 
soared aloft and against the sun. The 
sweetest fruit grows near the ground. — 
W. S. Landor, 

Beauty has little to do with engaging 
the love of women. The air, manner, 
tone, the conversation, the something 
that interests, the something to be proud 
of, these are the attributes of the man 
made to be loved. — Bulwer Lytton. 

Of all the ingenious mistakes into 
which erring man has fallen, perhaps 
none have been so pernicious in their 
consequences, or have brought so many 
evils into the world, as the popular opin- 
ion that the way of the transgressor is 
pleasant and easy. — Hosea Ballou. 


R Autograph anh Writ 

iimo. loop 

ages. Charles A. Lilley, Nc 

Thb interesti 

DK volume has been prepar 

*hat the publis 

cr lerms a long felt need. 1 


« and poetry. Original and selec 

Dedicatory. Friendly, AfTeclionale. Humorous. Floral and 

It if a well printed and otherwise handsome book. Nearly 
every reader of the Gazrttb is called upon u>mciims to 
contribute to the " autograph album." and could make 

booki will invariably go to our friends by relum mail. 
There wfll be nn delay of either. Remember, the suhscrip. 

the matter k brought to their notice, will gladly subKribe 
for it : tben, in luni, they may send us a subscriber, and get 

For Fifteen New Subscribers sent 
us BY A Subscriber, 


Compendium OF Forms: 

Edafatlooal, Social, Legs! sod Conimmial. 

Embracing a complete Self- Teaching Course 

in Penmanship and Book-keeping, and 

Aid to English Compositiott. 

Including Ortht^rapby, Capital Letters, Punc- 
tuation, Composition, Elocution, Oratory. Rhet- 
oric, Letter Writing in all its Forms, the Laws 
and By-I^ws of Social Etiquette, Business, Law 
and Commercial Forms, Complete Dictionary of 
Legal and Commercial Terms, Synonyms, Abbre- 
viations, Foreign Phrases, Poetry, etc. 

Also, a Manual of Agriculture and Mechanics, 
with a Complete Guide to Parliamentary Prac- 
tice, Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies. 
Organization and Conduct of Meetings, etc. ; 
Game Laws of United States and Provinces ; 
also, the following Tables for Ready Reference : 

Naval HMery 

Glaner at Our Fortign Trad*. 
ComfiUU History c/tack Slate and Ttrritary. 
Papulation of Saltt. Territeriei and PrtNcifal Cititi oj 

Mflric SyU.m of WaghU and \t,a,ure,. 

Ohe Large, Elegahtlt iLiusrnATEo QuAnro Volume, 



he volumes in daily \Me.—Boilon Daily Herald. 

One 01 the most useful books for reference, or study, re- 
cently issued, is undoubtedly " Gaskell's Compendium of 

It contains a amount of valuable informau'on, 

John D. Long. Git'. o/Matt. 

Gov. o/Ntvj Hamfihirt. 





ur '• Gaskcll's Compendium of Forms" 

, the business man — in fact, everybody 

Hoi*. Jambs A. Wbstom, 
£lr-C«.. o/Nnu Hampihirt. 




ry nu.c 

Hon. Marcus L. Wakd. 

Ex'G«t.>. e/ Neui Jtrtty. 


AVn- 7f'ey. 






b. a 



t useful books in my library. It con- 
mation carefully arranged. clav.ificd 
ork iseiMineitfypraetical. and cannot 
book of referent and itistruction to 
and professional men. 

It is full of good thinj 

J, E. SOULB. Principal. 
Bryant & Stratton Business College. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Is decidedly tlie best and only complete wnrk nfthe kind. 

Rryani, Stratton & Sadler College. Baltimore. Md. 

.. /W« 

c'hooi. ] 

Bryant & Stratton Coramerctal School. Boaton. 

care and icholar^ip in its compilation. Tlinse who poaso* 

world of awkwardness, and will grow wiser by having 

W. A. D«*KB. Princifal. 

Hillsdale (Mich.j College. 


G. k. Gaskell, Publisher. 


VOL. III. -No. 2. 

Before the Dnjbreak. 

Too fiercely bright is the full light 

That her pale Elc.nming liinip upbi 
Before the daybreak sings x bird 

Bui 1 would be thai 




rtising i 


sary, eve 

n to 


a good 


school. P. R. Spencer, wh 
taught in Ohio, used to write up 
>wn hand a dozen or so of bills 
ng that he would open a writing school 
at the school house at Jefferson, Harp- 
, ersfield, or Kingsville, on such an even- 
ting, to continue for twelv 
terms, $2. These, in the 
old gentleman's matchless 
style, written with an old 
fashioned quill pen, and 
posted about the place, 
were quite sufficient to fill 
school house for the 
entire session. 

'^ow, the writing teacher 
advertises very much like 
anyone else, and uses as 
much skill in setting forth 
the advantages he is pre- 
pared to offer. 
The best way to do this is: 
First. To have a circular left at every 
house in the village and neighborhood in 
which you purpose teaching. 

Second. To call upon the editor of the 
leading newspaper, insert a short adver- 
tisement of the school, and ask him if 
he will kindly call attention to it editori- 
ally. By examining one of your circu- 
lars he will see that you are well spoken 
of by those in other places where you 
have taught, and a person of good char- 

Third. The poster, brief and to the 
point, may be put up in a few of the 
most public places. But few, however, 
consider a poster necessary ; though it 
may be made very effective if it be odd 
and attractive. 

Fourth. Some teachers visit each fam- 
ily in the neighborhood, and " talk up " a 
school. They exhibit specimens show- 
ing the improvement of their scholars in 
different places, and of their own skill 
in writing ; but they do not circulate any 
subscription paper, or ask tuitions in 
advance. This gives confidence in them. 
People say, "Well, we'll try the school. 

anyhow!" Everything appears fair and 

The school being organized, the teach- 
er now proceeds with it according to 
some regular system ; in most cases he 
follows with greater or less exactness the 
mode laid down by some one of the var- 
ious authors who have devoted time and 
care to this subject. The latest works 
on this topic are greatly in advance of 
the old. It is remarkable to what a de- 
gree of perfection the writing school, as 
an " institution," has been brought by 
some of our best teachers ; and so well 
is it appreciated that it is now looked 
forward to in some parts of the country 
with the most pleasant expectations, by 
both young and old. if there were 
more of them conducted by men of more 
culture and experience, the country 
would gain still more from them, both 
in instruction and real satisfaction. 

Handsome Engrravint;. 

During the past seven years we have 
tried several leading engravers, and dif- 

Tcachin^ Writing Schools. 

Every winter the travelling writing 
master makes his appearance ; some- 
times he comes singly, sometimes in 
force. Frequently competition among 
these knights of the quill is lively, and 
the results of their teaching remarkable 
in the extreme — the very poorest writers 
being transformed into the most superb 
penmen (in imagination) in twelve easy 
lessons. But in every case, where the 
teacher is a good man he is gladly wel- 
comed ; a school is readily formed, and 
made profitable both to the learner and 
to the master. 

There are some hints to teachers which 
may be given here that will no doubt be 
of value to many ; they are condensed 
from our new book. 

Before starting out to teach writing, 
the teacher should get together all the 
recommendations he can from persons 
who Imr*^ him and ran cer»*fy to his I 
character and qualifications. He should 

school to those of whom he gets the 
room and who are responsible to the 
public for it. 

Some of our penmen suggest the idea 
that Mark Twain's account of the gath- 
ering together of the great literary lu- 
minaries was borrowed bodily from the 
" Penman's Convention," published in 
the Home Guest, and at first credited to 
the eminent humorist himself. Mark has 
honors enough showered upon him — he 
didn't write it. The man that did it 
with his little pen was Charles T. Cragin, 
of New Hampshire, in whose active 
brain these interesting characters origi- 
nated. Hinman, the wandering penman, 
with his earnest gaze and eloquent 
pleadings for the right ; Knauss and 
Stewart, whose chirographic monstrosi- 
ties created loud and prolonged ap- 
ptaiist- •\e-^^ncei s WvM and big, all 
taking part in this grand convention, 
were each, in turn, pre- 
sented to the reader in a 
manner true to life. 

It is a lucky thing to 
have a great humorist 
among us. Let us treat 
him kindly, that he may 
live long in the land. 

ferent processes for reproducing the au- 
tographs sent us for printing. The best 
work of this kind has invariably come 
from the well known establishment of 
Russell & Richardson, of Boston. In 
that line of work, as in others, they have 
no superiors. Our heading and sub- 
headings, the wood cut of the writing 
school, and all our best autographs are 
samples of what they can do. The best 
wood engravings in the new book pub- 
lished by Fairbanks, Palmer & Co., came 
from their hands ; and although rather 
high in price, were found more satisfac- 
tory and cheaper in the end. 

But, in the way of portrait work, we 
have found no more artistic or life-like 
likenesses than those made for us by the 
Moss Engraving Co., of New York. 
Hereafter this company will engrave all 
of our portraits, and we hope to exhibit 
as handsome work in that line as can 
well be done. 

About a quarter of the Vermont towns 
have elected women as superintendents 
of schools. 

also provide himself with specimens of 
penmanship ; these should be well fram- 
ed, and ready to put up in any place 
that may be visited. The most attrac- 
tive specimens are those that contain a 
variety of work — a little pen drawing, 
some flourishing and lettering, and plain 
business writing. The latter should be 
very plain, and stand out in bold, distinct, 
though not heavily shaded, lines. It 
should be just such writing as one would 
expect to see done on a merchant's 
books or in his correspondence by a very 
fine business penman. The other pieces 
will not be so carefully scrutinized, and 
may be executed with more freedom 
from conventional rules ; there is, too, 
in these a greater artistic latitude. 


Before beginning to organize the class, 
the school room should be secured. It 
should be properly furnished for such a 
class, with desks and a blackboard. The 
use of a school room generally costs 
the teacher but a trifle, if anything. The 
teacher usually gives free tickets to his 

Beware of tlie Freueli Heel I 

One of the most sense- 
less and vicious fashions 
now popular is the " French 
heel." It is neither beautiful 
nor useful, and positively 
injurious to health. It is the unani- 
mous expression of the wisest medical 
men that it has caused serious and com- 
plicated diseases. The weight of the 
body presses directly upon nerves that 
are but Hltle protected, and the whole 
system suffers. A lady, a short time 
since, called upon an eminent oculist of 
a neighboring city, for a nervous trouble 
afflicting her eyes. After a careful ex- 
amination, the physician told the lady 
it was caused by her French heels, and 
he would make no attempt at cure until 
she changed the character of her shoes. 
He informed the lady that she would 
stand a good chance for total blindness 
unless she obeyed. She left, remarking 
she "would think about it." 

[From the Toledo Blade, March 3.] 
Gaskei.l's Compenuium. — There is nothing 
that contributes more to a young man's advan- 
tageous start in business than good penmanship, 
nnd there is no better way of acquiring this art 
than under the iustruotioiis of Prof. G. A. 
Gaskell, of New York City, the advertisement 
of whose "Compendium" appears elsewhere. 
This admirable penmanship has received unlim- 
ited pr.iisc from the best judges in the world. 


good opinion of people around him. 
' And, like many other shy and sensitive 
I Livr.» «..>«- persons, he affected an air of ease, which 

ijv uuw.>joH>^^^. I became almost offensive from the con- 

In 1728, there lived in the County of | tradictory elements 
Longford, Ireland, and in the town of 
Pallas, a clergyman of the Protestant 
church, who eked out his scanty stipend 
by cultivating a portion of land. Be- 
tween these two resou; 
to raise about two h 
year. Pallas was tht 
])Iare remote from all 

Uleaninioi from Shctehes of Great Men. 


es, he contrived 
ndred dollars a 

nportant centres, 
es drearily on a 
in water, and ac- 

nlet 1 
plain often submerged 
cess to which is difficult. 

Yet here was born, on the loth day 
of November, 1728, Oliver (loldsmith, 
whose name is always included among 
the literary lights of the eighteenth cen- 

Although of Irish birth— and the fam- 
ily had been for several generations resi- 
dents of Ireland — his ancestry was Saxon 
and Protestant. In the troubled times 
that preceded Oliver's birth, the Gold- 
smiths had borne their share of the perse- 
cutions accorded to "heretics;" but 
the knowledge of this left no trace of 
bitterness in the heart of the most dis- 
tinguished of their race. 

The first six years of Goldsmith's life 
were spent in this desolate place. The 
home was poor, and the surroundings 
not calculated to inspire a child with 
very lofty ambitions. A wise man has 
said : "Give me the first seven years of 
a child's life, and I care not who has the 
rest." In Oliver Goldsmith's case, the 
wild bogs and fens had his first six years, 
and gave him those vagabond tastes 
which clung to him throughout life. 

When he was seven years of age, his 
father was presented to a living in West- 
meath. This brought great changes for 
the better. The cottage was left, and a 
commodious house taken on a frequented 
road near the village of Lissoy. The 
income from the living was one thousand 
dollars a year, which was equal to about 
twice that sum in these days, and which 
must have seemed munificent to the 
family, which had struggled along on 
one fifth of the sum for years. 

It was here that, through the kind 
offices of a maid servant, young Oliver 
was taught his alphabet, and prepared 
to that extent to avail himself of the 
instructions of a retired quartermaster, 
who was preceptor of a school where 
the veriest rudiments were taught. But 
if the old soldier's erudition was slight, 
his fund of stories was large, and tales 
of " banshees " and hobgoblins were an 
undue proportion to the more serious 
work of school. For two years Oliver 
was under this instruction, and then 
went from one grammar school to an- 
other, until he was at last fitted for the 
university at Dublin. 

But these years were by no means 
careless and happy ones to the luckless 
schoolboy. His i)ersonal appearance 
was most ungainly. His face, always 
ugly, showed the scars of small-pox. 
His limbs were awkwardly adjusted to 

At seventeen, in 1745. ^^ *ent up to 
Trinity College, Dublin, to begin his 
course of higher studies. 

His father, the Rev. Charles, had so 
impoverished his family by paying a 
dowry of two thousand dollars on his 
daughter's marriage, that he was unable 
to meet the fees for his son's university 
course ; so, much against that young 
gentleman's wishes, he was entered as a 
sizar. This position required menial 
service in lieu of tuition and board, and 
it must have called for all (ioldsmith's 
good-nature to accept it, and lay him- 
elf open to the many indignities that 
vould follow. He was finally persuaded 
to accept it by his Uncle Contarine, 
who had himself gone through college 
n that capacity. Had Goldsmith's ex- 
amination been well borne, he might 
have triumphed in some degree over his 
disadvantages ; but he stood lowest on 
the list of applicants, and was barely 

Throughout his career in Dublin he 
seems to have done very little at his 
books. His father's death threw upon 
him a necessity for raising money for 
himself, and there are rumors of visits 
to pawnbrokers, the selling of street 
ballads, and other such expedients, 
which show that his attention was divert- 
ed from the pursuit of learning. His 
wild spirits led him to play the buffoon 
in the lecture-room, to pump water on a 
constable, and to invite a party of both 
sexes to a ball in his attic. For this lat- 
ter breach of college law he was severely 
caned by his tutor — a brutal type of 
man — in the presence of his guests. 

This so wounded the vanity of poor 
Goldsmith that he sold his books and 
ran away from college. His brother 
persuaded him to return, however, and 
the affair was so far forgiven as to per- 
mit him to remain and take his bache- 
lor's degree. That he received this 
shows that he learned something during 
his course, and yet when he was grad- 
uated there was nothing useful that he 
was fitted to do. He could play the 
flute tolerably, sing a song to please his 
friends, and play cards. In fact, to 
amuse himself seemed to be his only 

In this condition he returned to 
Ballymahon, where his mother had 
sided since her widowhood. There he 
occasionally assisted his brother in 
school, or ran errands for his mother, or 
idled around the brooks with his fishing 
line, or played his flute. Anything to 
pass the time seemed to be his rule. 
But the evenings were all devoted to 
George Conway's inn, where the song 
and jest, the pipe and glass, and the 
more exciting game of cards, detained 
him till the small night hours. 

At last his relatives wearied of so 
much idleness, and tried to find some 
vocation for this hopeless member of the 
family, who would never find anything 
: some reason, the 
ded on — perhaps in 

from the episcopal palace. Then th( 
good Uncle Contarine, who seems ti 
have been the untiring friend of thi 
luckless wight, secured him a place a 
tutor in a gentleman's family, whei 
stayed long enough to amass one hur 

d fifty dollars, and to buy a horse. A I 
quarrel in regard to some question of 
play is said to have been the occasion 
of the dissolution of this relation. Prob- 
ably the restless spirit of the young man 
made him quite ready to leave his quiet 
occupation as tutor, and led him to seek 
further adventures. 

Be this as it may, he started on his 
good horse, with his money in his pocket, 
for Cork, whence he said he was going 
to sail for America. In six weeks he 
returned to his mother's house on a 
wretched hack, his money all gone, the 
fortune yet unmade. He told a ridicu- 
lous story of having paid for his passage 
and sent his chest on board some vessel 
bound for the new world, and that 
while he was having a merry supper with 
some friends the vessel sailed without 
him. Whatever the reason was, the fact 
remained that he was again at home — 
again in need of assistance. Perhaps a 
correct history of his adventures might 
be gleaned from his account of Mr. 
Barry Lyndon's exploits on his ride to 
Dublin under similar circumstances. 

Uncle Contarine came to the rescue, 
gave the young man two hundred and 
fifty dollars, and sent him to Dublin in 
search of a legal education. In a very 
short time the money was lost by gam 
bling, and Goldsmith again presented 
himself to his family. The good 
forgave the past, and furnished the funds 
which should secure instruction in medi- 
cine. This was in 1752, and then Gold- 
smith said good by to Ireland for the 
last time, and started for Edinburgh. 
There he remained for a year and a half, 
and his family fondly hoped he was at 
last fitting himself for a congenial pro- 
fession. At the end of that time he 
suggested to his uncle that he was in a 
condition to be vastly improved by 
travel, and mentioned the names of one 
or two learned professors whose erudi- 
tion would enlighten him. The indul- 
gent uncle consented, and the student 
started off with one hundred dollars in 
his pocket. Whether he studied at all is 
doubtful, for he learned very little ; but 
his taste for gambling was certainly 
indulged, much to the detriment of his 
fortunes. At last he was reduced to the 
necessity of borrowing from a friend 
enough to take him out of Leyd 
Just as he was starting he saw a r; 
and most expensive flower, of which 
Uncle Contarine was very fond, ai 
with his usual inconsequence, bought 
the flower, sent it ofi to Ireland, ai 
started on his grand tour with but a 
guinea in his pocket. 

Of this long journey there are really 
no records left, which is a great pity. 
His letters to his uncle, containing 
usually a delicate appeal for money, 
give very little information in regard to 
what he was doing. There is little 
doubt that he sang or begged his way 
chiefly, for his uncle did not furnish 
means to meet all his expenses, and no 

his slight frame. Conscious of these 
disadvantages, which we may be sure I to do himself, 
were set in a clear light before him by church was first di 

his frank companions, and aware of the the hope of its doing good to one who ! one else helped him. But he saw much 
low opinion in which his instructors held could certainly do no good to it. But 1 of nature, though he had no eye to ob- 
his scholarship, his trials were by no ! when Goldsmith went to apply to the i ser%-e her secrets carefully ; and he pro- 
means light. For this same boy, who ! Bishop of Elphin for ordination, it is bably had a good time in his careless, 
had so little to recommend him in those said that he arrayed himself in scarlet light-hearted way. He brought home a 
days, was painfully eager to secure the ; trousers, and was summarily ejected > medical degree, though it is only a mat- 

ter of conjecture as to where and how 
he got it. He certainly saw something 
of foreign universities, as is shown by 

:e as 1 his writings. 

e he ! At the end of four years his remit- 
dred I tances from Ireland stopped, his letters ■ 
remained unanswered, and he at last 
realized that he must begin to earn his 
own bread. In 1756 he found himself 
London, with such facilities as he 
had. He was without friends, introduc- 
tions or money. His appearance was 
very much against him. Notwithstand- 
ing all his opportunities, he had really 
nothing of value to offer in exchange for 
the necessaries of life, and it was inevit- 
able that there should be many days of 
hardship before any permanent occupa- 
tion was found. But a dinner more or 
less was a trifling inconvenience to Gold- 
smith, and a debt only disturbed his 
equanimity because it troubled his credi- 
tors. His insouciance was absolute, and 
defied all the "outrageous fortune" 
which befell him. But his misfortunes 
never hardened his heart, nor turned his 
sensitiveness into bitterness ; and it is 
probable that his hardships have troubled 
his biographers much more than they 
did himself. 

At last employment was found in a 
chemist's shop,where the compounding of 
medicines suggested that he might prac- 
tice a little on his own account. In follow- 
ing this thought, he went to Southwark, 
where, abandoning his first intention, he 
became a corrector of the press under 
Mr. George Richardson. While here, 
he composed his first play — a tragedy, of 
course — and almost equally, of course, it 
was a failure. Then he went to Peck- 
ham, where, in 1757, he became an usher 
in Dr. Miiner's school. There he was 
doubtless quite happy for a time. The 
family seemed to like this merry, care- 
less usher. Indeed, it was through his 
acquaintance with young Milner, who 
was his fellow student at Edinburgh, 
that he obtained the situation. 

He wearied of it before long, and as- 
sociated himself with Griffiths as a writer 
of reviews and similar hack work for 
periodicals. This was not an improve- 
ment on the usher's life, for he was sub- 
jected to the most exasperating literary 
surveillance from both Mr. and Mrs. 
Grifliths. This, however, was the dis- 
cipline he required to develop the ex- 
quisite literary traits which afterward 
delighted the English public. His work 
at this time gave but little promise of 
that which he afterward accomplished, 
but it was not a failure in any sense. 
Still, after five months, a quarrel ensued. 
Goldsmith charged Mr. Griffiths with im- 
pertinence, while Mr. Grifliths brought 
the counter accusation of idleness. Gold- 
smith left Mr. Griffiths' house, and took 
lodgings in Fleet Street. He wrote re- 
views for a short time longer, and then 
drifted back to Peckham as usher in Dr. 
Miiner's school. 

During his residence with Dr. Milner, 
a bright prospect dawned before the 
usher. He had the hope of a medical ap- 
pointment to India, on the Coromandel 
coast. After taking his friends into con- 
sultation, and having his hopes raised 
to the utmost, the project fell through, 
probably from deficiency in professional 
knowledge. This is made more proba- 
ble from his failure to pass the requisite 
examination as surgeon's mate, for which 
he made application when the Coro- 
mandel plan exploded. 



He- was now, in 1758, thirty years of 
age. The next year he made his first 
independent literary venture, an "En- 
quiry into the Present State of Polite 
Learning in Europe." Although the 
work was issued anonymously, the au- 
thorship was easily guessed, and Gold- 
smith had no real desire to keep it secret. 
The " Enquiry " is a criticism of critics, 
and animadverts severely upon the injury 
to literature which grows out of their 
ofhces. He could have had no personal 
motive in writing as he did, for this was 
the first time he had laid himself open 
to the lances that had wrought destruc- 
tion, in his opinion, to others. 

Although Goldsmith had tried every 
other means of taking care of himself 
that offered, and literature was his 
(hrmer ressort, when he found that the 
promise of success was greater here than 
elsewhere, he hegan to consider the ques- 
tion of devoting himself to it. Dreams 
of personal distinction had hovered 
round his brain from time to time, and 
now there seemed to be a chance, at 
lenst, of realizing them. 

Just at this crisis, Mr. Wilkie, a book- 
seller, in St. Paul's Churchyard, started 
a new weekly magazine, the Bfe, and 
invited Goldsmith to become sole con- 
tributor. This was a favorable opening, 
and the offer was accepted. On the 
6th of October, 1759, Mr. Goldsmith 
made his introductory bow with charm- 
ing grace, 

"There is not. perhaps," he said, in 
the opening of the first number, " a 
more whimsically dismal figure in nature 
than a man of real modesty, who assumes 
an air of impudence — who, while his 
heart beats with anxiety, studies ease 
and affects good humor. .In this situa- 
tion, however, a periodical writer often 
finds himself upon his first attempt to 
address the public in form. All his 
power of pleasing is damped by solici- 
tude, and his cheerfulness dashed with 
ap]>rehension. Impressed with the ter- 
rors of the tribunal before which he is 
going to appear, his natural humor turns 
to pertness, and for real wit he is obliged 
to substitute vivacity. His first publi- 
cation draws a crowd, they i)art dis- 
satisfied ; and the author, never more to 
be indulged with a favorable hearing, is 
left to condemn the indelicacy of his own 
address, or their want of discernment. 
For my part, as I was never distinguished 
for address, and have often even blun- 
dered in making my bow, such bodings 
as these had like to have totally re- 
pressed my ambition. I was at a loss 
whether to give the public specious 
promises, or give none ; whether to be 
merry or sad on this solemn occasion. 
If I should decline all merit, it was too 
probable the hasty reader might have 
taken me at my word. If, on the other 
hand, like laborers in the magazine 
trade, I had, with modest impudence, 
humbly presumed to promise an epitome 
of all the good things that ever were 
said or written, this might have dis- 
gusted those readers I most desired to 
please. Had I been merry, I might 
have been censured as vastly low ; and 
had I been sorrowful, I might have been 
left to mourn in solitude and silence ; 
in short, whichever way I turned, noth- 
ing presented but prospects of terror, 
despair, chandlers' shops, and waste 


I'nfortunately, the Bee did not pros- 
er, and after a few numbers the sole 

contributor made his farewell bow in 
much the same tone of humor with which 
he entered the arena. 

But though the Bee failed as a maga- 
zine, the genius displayed in Gold- 
smith's contributions brought to his 
garret men of distinction. Percy, after- 
ward Bishop of Dromore, Smollett, and 
even the great Samuel Johnson, came to 
make personal acquaintance with one 
whom they believed belonged to their 
corps. Had Boswell been in London 
then, we should know at what time and 
how the strong friendship began between 
Johnson and Goldsmith, but it was not 
until afterward that he joined his hero. 
Thenceforth there is much light thrown 
on Goldsmith's character by the truth- 
fulness and accuracy of Boswell. Al- 
though he never liked Goldsmith, and 
was doubtless somewhat jealous of John- 
son's friendship for him, his love of fair- 
ness led him to correct injurious mis- 

From this time engagements multi- 
plied with Goldsmith, and the remu- 
neration was adequate to the necessities 
of a man of any prudence. But of that 
"sneaking virtue" he was utterly desti- 
tute ; and the debts and duns, which 
had always been a prominent feature in 
his life, continued unabated. On one 
occasion he invited some young ladies 
to go to a garden with him. Without 
giving a thought to his impecuniosity, 
he ordered such refreshments as he 
wished, and was only brought to a reali- 
zation of his dilemma by a fruitless 
search in his pockets for money to pay 
the bill. But in spite of faults such as 
this, friends multiplied, and a feeling of 
tender liking condoned every offence. 

His literary work grew apace. *' The 
Citizen of the World," a most delicate 
satire on the customs of society, was re- 
ceived favorably. It purported to be 
the criticisms of a Chinese upon Euro- 
pean habits. "The Man in Black "is 
one of the most marked features of this 
series of papers, and is often supposed 
to be somewhat autobiographical. There 
is a vein of whimsical satire here that is 
most delightful. 

In 1760-2, we find our author much 
in request for the work he was doing 
so well. Careless as to tidiness, though 
fond of gay colors and display, it is said 
that on one evening, when Mr. Percy 
called for Dr. Johnson to go with him 
to Goldsmith's lodgings, he found him 
dressed with the greatest care. This 
was so remarkable an occurrence that 
Percy expressed his surprise. 

"Why, sir," said Johnson, "I hear 
that Goldsmith, who is a very great 
sloven, justifies his disregard of cleanli- 
ness and decency by quoting my prac- 
tice ; and I am desirous this night to 
show him a better example." 

The lesson was potent ; and tailors' 
bills were added to the others that fol- 
lowed the now more prosperous author, 
for an increasing income only encour- 
aged the miserable habit of incurring 
debts. His growing popularity, and the 
consequent multiplication of social en- 
gagements, led to expenses to which his 
previous life had been unaccustomed, 
and for which our happy go lucky 
author knew not how to make legiti- 
mate provision. 

Under the urgency of Mr. Newbery, 
Goldsmith worked very hard. Pam- 
phlets, tracts, compilations and reviews 
came rapidly from his overtasked pen. 

and the logical consequence was a fail- 
ure of health. And so, in 1762, he left 
London for a visit to Tunbridge and 
Bath. Here he was attracted by the 
fame of Richard Nash, the beau of 
three generations, who had just died, 
and the result was a most entertaining 
life of this master of ceremonies. The 
"Life" was published anonymously, 
but every page revealed its authorship. 
"The mock heroic gravity," says Wil- 
liam Black, " the half familiar, con- 
temptuous good nature with which he 
composes this funeral march to a mar- 
ionette, are extremely whimsical and 
amusing." There was enough scandal 
thrown in to please the gossiping spirit 
of the day. The biographer tried to do 
justice to his subject, in spite of his ill 
concealed disposition to laugh at his 

As an instance of Nash's rude wit. 
Goldsmith narrates the following : " His 
physician, having called on him to see 
whether he had followed a prescription 
sent him the previous day, was greeted 
in this fashion ; ' Followed your pre- 
scription ? No. Egad! if I had, I 
should have broken my neck, for I 
flung it out of the two pair of stairs 
window.' " 

On Goldsmith's return to London he 
took lodgings in Mrs. Fleming's house, 
near Islington. Here he continued in 
the service of Mr. Newbery, for whom 
he wrote industriously. But while writ- 
ing reviews and revising new editions 
for his patron, he was also engaged on 
work of his own. "The Traveller," be- 
gun long ago, underwent further re- 
vision, and the characters of the inimit- 
able "Vicar of Wakefield " were emerg- 
ing from the nebulous condition of their 
first conception into the clearly defined 
men and women whom we so well know. 

The society into which Goldsmith 
found himself ushered was stimulating 
to his best powers. Sir Joshua Reyn- 
olds and Hogarth were among his new 
friends. He was invited to join "The 
Club," that famous association which 
numbered so many brilliant intellects 
among its members. This latter honor 
he doubtless owed to Johnson, who was 
quick to recognize the quality of his 
genius. Boswell, in his careful record, 
quotes Johnson as saying, " Dr. Gold- 
smith is one of the first men we have as 
an author, and he is a very worthy man, 
too. He has been loose in his princi- 
ples, but he is coming right." Boswell 
had called him a "blunderer, a feather 
brained person," and ridiculed his ap- 
pearance. But Goldsmith did not re- 
taliate. Once, when asked, "Who is 
this Scotch cur who follows at John- 
son's heels?" he replied, "He is not a 
cur: you are too severe — he is only a 
burr. Tom Davis flung him at Johnson 
in sport, and he has the faculty of 

About this time we lose sight of 
Goldsmith. His debts were pressing, 
and he was sometimes obliged to hide 
himself from his creditors. He had be- 
come interested in work for himself, and 
neglected that for his booksellers, from 
which his income was derived, and on 
which he had received advances. His 
reappearance, as chronicled by Boswell, 
was when arrested for debt by his land- 
lady. Johnson related the story to Bos- 
well, who preserved it for the public. 
Painters have done justice to the scene, 
too, so that it is telling an old story to 

repeat it here. Nevertheless, no sketch 
of our author would be complete with- 
out it, so we will quote from Boswell, 
whose accuracy may be trusted : 

"'I received one morning a message 
from poor Goldsmith,' says J ohnson, 
' that he was in great distress, and, as it 
was not in his power to come to me, 
begging that I would come to him as 
soon as possible. I sent him a guinea, 
and promised to come to him directly. 
I accordingly went as soon as I was 
dressed, and found that his landlady 
had arrested him for his rent, at which 
he was in a violent passion. I perceived 
that he had already changed my guinea, 
and had got a bottle of Madeira and a 
glass before him. I put the cork into 
the bottle, desired he would be calm, 
and began to talk to him of the means 
by which he might be extricated. He 
then told me he had a novel ready for 
the press, which he produced to me. I 
looked into it, and saw its merit ; told 
the landlady I should soon return ; and, 
having gone to a bookseller, sold it for 
;^6o. I brought Goldsmith the money, 
and he discharged his rent, not without 
rating his landlady in a high tone for 
having used him so ill.' " 

This was in the latter part of 1764, 
but the novel, "The Vicar of Wake- 
field," did not issue from the press till 
March, 1766. Before this "The Trav- 
eller" appeared, and brought reputation 
and a little money to the author. The 
time of its appearance was propitious. 
Young was dying. Gray dead, and no 
poet of special power was moving the 
English heart. The tender pathos of 
"The Traveller," its vague longing, its 
musical measure, its carefully consid- 
ered melody, gave it place at once 
among the English poems. The sec- 
ond, third and fourth editions speedily 
appeared. It is characteristic of Gold- 
smith that, when the Earl of Northum- 
berland sent for him to compliment him 
on his poem, and to inquire whether, as 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, he could 
be of service to him, he gently set aside 
any personal claims, and only men- 
tioned that he had a brother in Ireland, 
a clergyman, who stood in need of help. 

The success of "The Traveller" led 
Griffiths and Newbery to make an offer 
of one hundred dollars for a volume 
of essays selected from those already 
printed, and a bright, entertaining book 
was soon offered to the public. This 
was followed by the ballad, "Edwin 
and Angelina." 

The increasing honors that came to 
Goldsmith now led him to take cham- 
bers in Garden Court, to engage a man 
servant, and to wear very fine clothes. 
His first suit, consisting of purple silk 
small clothes, scarlet rotjueiaure, a wig, 
sword and gold headed cane, gave him 
such delight that in six months he in- 
dulged in three similar suits. 

At this time he followed a suggestion 
of Reynolds, and attempted to bring 
his medical knowledge into use, but the 
druggist to whom one of his prescrip- 
tions was sent refused to make up any- 
thing so preposterous, and the patient 
taking sides with him, our doctor put 
away his professional ambitions and re- 
turned to literature. 

" The Good-natured Man" appeared 
in 1768. Although exquisitely ludicrous 
in many of its scenes, and notwith- 
standing the prologue, written by Dr. 
\C0nlinueti en six/A fa^f-l 


New York, April, 1881. 

(yubUealion Office, J7 to 23 Rw Str> 

G. A. Gaskell, Proprietor. 

Ail Utters should be addressed as follows : 

P. 0. Box 1534, 
New YorkCiiyP. 0. 

By keeping this in mind much time will 
be saved. 

New Premlnm. 


Keahkr, get one new subscriber this month 
for us. nnd wc will mail you a handsome copy of 
I.ilUys Selections for Autograph and Writing 
Alhnms, a book of about loo pages, that every 
young lady and gentleman wants. 

This offer is not to those subscribing for them- 
selves ; but to those sending new names. We 
have ordered a special edition of 1,000 of these 
books to give to our subscribers this month! 

Those wishing copies of the book, and pre- 
ferring to remit the cash, may have tbem for 30 
cents each. This is a very low price for it. It 
is the only book of the kind published. 


Some beautiful autographs have re- 
cently been received, but the majority of 
them are flourished too much to look 
business like. Our readers should write 
more plainly, and use good black ink. 
The following are worthy of special 
mention. We hope the parties will ob- 
serve particularly the remarks in paren- 
theses : 

K. L. Kraus, igt Grand Street, New Haven, 
Conn. (Autograph of old style not received.) 

H. L. Steiner, Osceola, Crawford Co., Ohio. 

R. Kitigerald, box 6g8, Pelerboro, Ontario. 
(Autograph of old style not received.) 

E. L. Baldwin, Biichtel College, Akron, Ohio. 
M. B. Moore, Morgan Station, Pendleton Co., 


H. W. Miller, Brooks Grove, Liv. Co., N. Y. 
(May be improved.) 

J. H. Smith, 1326 Poplar Street, Philadelphia, 

H. A. Green, Stafford C. H., Va. (Not quite 
" exact" enough.) 

D. W. Stahl, North Industry, Ohio. (Capitals 
too large for small letters.) 

Gns. D. Avery. Clinton, Missouri. (Flourished 
loo much, but otherwise good ; try again.) 

H. A. Howard, Rockland, Maine. (Written on 
an unruled card ; crooked.) 

F. E. Persons, Rushford, N. Y. (May be im- 

D. G. Power, drawer 1028, Quebec, Can. 

A. A. Collins, Lewisburg, Lewis Co., N. Y. 
(Handsomely done, but with blue ink; send 
others in black.) 

». M. Hubbard, Jr., Bastrop, Texas. (Not 
quite up to standard ; try again.) 

A. L. Fralick, Bird in Hand, Lancaster Co., 
Pa. (The same.) 

/ J. W. Allison, Dunbar, Ont. (Lines are too 
rough, though the autograph is an artistic one ; 
would hz perfect if lines were true.) 

Elma M. Smith. Claverack, N. Y. (The finest 
lady's signature yet received. May we have her 
portrait ?) 

W. H. Jackson, Iowa City, Iowa, Johnson 
Co, Savings Bank. (Beautifully written, but ink 
is too pale to photograph to the wood block.) 

R. M. Peck, Ellswortli. Maine. (This is also 
spoiled by poor ink.) 

J. L. Smith, Windfall, Ind. 
The best of the above will soon be 
engraved, and published. Who will 
send us the best autographs the coming 
month ? 

[From LUlefs Selections for Autc 
and Writing Albums^ 

From a Prominent Teacher. 

The following is from Packard's Col- 
lege Tell- Tale, New York. We are glad 
Mr. Packard likes our new book, and 
we value his opinion. He is widely 
known as the author of the Bryant & 
Stratton Book-keeping Series, and gener- 
ally regarded as authority on that and 
kindred subjects. 

Mr. Gaskell, of the Jersey City Business 
College, has prepared, and Fairbanks, Palmer 
& Co., of Chicago, have published, a book of 
500 pages, entitled " Gaskell's Compendium of 
Forms, Social, Legal and Commercial." The 
publishers say, that sixteen thousand copies were 
sold during the first month after publication. 
This secures to about 80,000 people, allowing 
that each copy will have five readers, a very val- 
uable aid in the most trying exigencies of life; 
for there is scarcely anything that young men 
and women are wont to do, or to think about, 
that is not ventilated in the book. In fact, on 
looking over the table of contents, and more par- 
ticulariy the book itself, one cannot help but 
wonder what must have been the experiences of 
a man to enable him to lay down, with such force 
and circumstance, the minutest rules of life and 
action, One is forced to the conclusion that the 
author must be a man of observation and close 


Mr. Gaskell is . 
and independent i 
just how t 

le of the most enterprising 
en in the profession, and he 
keep himself and his work 
antly before the people. His enei^ and 
skill in putting his Compendium of Writing into 
the nooks and corners of the earlh is something 
worthy of thought, and as an earnest of the 
success of his latest work, full of suggestiveness. 
Every young man and woman who wishes to 
know how to avoid the blunders and mistakes 
of life, should at once invest five dollars in 
Gaskell's " Laws and Forms." ^ 

" I find great difficulty in using new steel 
pens. They seem to be oily : ink won't flow on 
them. How can I manage them?" — J. H. 
Magoffev, Yreka, Cal. 

Let them stand in the ink till it 
" takes hold" of the pen ; then wipe the 
pen, carefully removing the oily sub- 
stance. The best pens frequently have 
this defect to a great degree. Our own 
are not free from it. 

" Can you tell me where I may get some en- 
grossing or stub pens ?" — T. E. Stone, Jasper, 

No ; perhaps we may be able to 
ascertain. We do not use them. 

" I hear that if a person sends you nami 
persons in their city, you will send a present to 
them. If I send you a list, will you send me a 
present?"— F. B. R., Waterlown. N. Y. 

We have no present use for lists of 
names ; our names come in already as 
fast as we can use them, and they are 
the best of all names to a publisher — 
those of his patrons. 

" What is the price of ' Bryant & Stratton's 
New Book -keeping,' and where can I get it ?" — 
C. W. Bakrock, New Martinsville, W. Va. 

$2.75. We will mail it to you. 

" I. In practicing from your Compendivim, 
how much time each day should be devoted to 
What is the muscular or combined 
? 3. Do you recommend the use of 
double lines to guide the pupil in making small 
letters all of the same height?" — T. C. F.. 
Tarrytown, N. V. 

For some, a half hour's practice is 
sufficient ; others may practice an hour 
or so. But the time spent should not 
be so protracted as to make the work 
tedious. 2. The muscular movement is 
explained fully in the Compendium 
"Instructions." 3. The double lines 
are very good for young pupils — those 
just beginning to learn their letters ; 
for an older class of learners they are 

" I. Is the ink in this letter suitable to be 
photographed to the engravers' block. If not. 
which is ? 2. Can you inform me where I can get 
a brilliant black ink, or a recipe for making it? 
3. Would writing between lines, ruled to the 
height of small letters, help to improve my 
handwriting?" — S. S. S., Passaic, N. J. 

r. Green ink is not suitable ; black is 
the only color that we can reproduce. 
2. Of J. S. Gaskell, Richmond Centre, 
Ohio. 3. No. 

" Will you kindly give me the address of the 
lithographers of the penmanship pages in your 
new book?" — L. B., Chicago. 

Donaldson Brothers, Five Points, New 
York City, and Shober & Co., Chicago, 

" Can I obtain a thorough knowledge of book- 
keeping from the new book, ' Compendium ol 
Forms?'"— M.J. McC, Marlboro, Mass. 

A good knowledge of the principle; 
of book-keeping — that is all that car 
be obtained from the study of a book 
merely. Such study ought ta be fol 
lowed up by practice, or a course ir 
some good school. 

" I see you favor business colleges and that 
kind of education. Are the business colleges all 
alike, or which would you recommend ?" — L. C, 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

Business colleges are not all alike, 
any more than other schools are ; indeed, 
there is a very great difference in busi- 
ness schools. You may readily find 
some good one by inquiring among youi 
friends who have patronized such insti- 

>.***«* J lake much interest in fine 
penmanship, and, though too far advanced ir 
bad habits (of writing only, I hope) to expect tc 
attain excellence as a penman, I have, notwith- 
standing, improved considerably in my writing 
since purchasing your Compendium some months 
ago. There are one or two points I should like 
to have made clear : 

"I. I find that I have a much greater 
mand of the pen (though not for shading at the 
liase of right cur\'e) when writing with a kind of 
sideways motion of the resting fingers and the 
forearm, than when the motion is straight awa) 
from or toward the body, or more in the line o 
the forearm. I am anxious to know if, whethei 
by adopting the easier method (to me), I may not 
be cultivating a bad habit. 

" 2. I have seen experts write who dropped 
the holder below the knuckle joint, causing the 
pen to make an angle of about thirty degrees 
with the paper, instead of forty-five degrees, as 
is frequently given as the proper angle in books 
of instruction. What are the reasons for carry- 
ing the holder above the knuckle joint ? Why not 
carry it a little below, if one can write with more 
ease that way ? 

"3. Should the muscular movement exercises 
of the oval and continuous curve he practised 
slowly and carefully, or rapidly? 

"4. Which of the three penholding fingers 
plays the principal part ; or, are the muscles of 
each about equally called into action, and do 

they press the holder about equally, 
lightly ? 

"5. To what extent do the fingers take part 
in what is called the combination movement ? 

"6. I find it very difficult to properly shade 
at the base of the right curve. Is it not neces- 
sary to give the pen a slight turn to the right?" 
— R. E. R., 52 Wall Street, New York City. 

I and 2. We judge that you are do- 
ing your " level best " to carry out some 
author's idea literally, instead of using 
some of your own common sense. If it 
is easier for you to write with the pen- 
holder below the knuckle joint, hold it 
below. That is the only way the writer 
of this can hold his pen. Hands differ, 
and so do positions. 3. With moder- 
ate rapidity, the hand, fingers and arm 
all moving together, as one. 4 and 5. 
The two first fingers and the thumb are 
brought most into use : the long up and 
down strokes of the extended small let- 
ters bring them into exercise in the com- 
bination movement. 6. Because you 
haven't got started just right. This we 
think will be remedied hereafter. Per- 
haps your pens are not good. 

"Please inform me what size my autograph 
must be to be published in the GAZETTE. If I 
make large capitals with the whole arm move- 
ment, could they be reduced in si/e by photo- 
graphing on the plate? And what time will I 
have to send my autograph to be published in 
the next issue?"— A. J., Elizabethtown, N. C. 

The autograph may be a trifle largei 
than to fill a column of the Gazette ; 
when photographed to the plate it is 
much smaller. Yes ; large capitals will 
appear smaller in the plate, but the 
proper proportions of both the capitals 
and small letters must be preserved. A 
common fault is to make capitals much 
too large. Many of the autographs sent 
us are thrown out for that reason. It 
is probable that no autographs will be 
published in the next issue, other pen- 
manship taking their place. 

" In your instruction on page eight, part No. 3, 
you say, ' rest the hand on the third and fourth 
fingers.' Are those two fingers to move over 
the paper with the hand, or, are they to form a 
stationary rest ? Please answer the above and 
oblige." — W. C. A. North, Grosvenordale, 

The fingers form a sliding rest, and 
move with the hand. 

" I want to get a case of colored inks, and to 
canvass for a trade in that line. Please tell me 
where I can get them."— J. L. H., Taitsville, 

Write to some first class manufacturer 
of inks. 

" Do you think, by my style of penmanship, 
that I could make a good penman ? If so, what 
course shall I pursue to be such ? Does writing 
with a lead pencil interfere with good writing? 
Am a newspaper correspondent, and use the pen- 
cil a great deal." — Miss 0. Frances J., New 
Ipswich, N. H. 

Your writing may be greatly improved. 
If you determine to change it, procure 
good pens, ink and paper, and go to 
work, carefully and systematically. In- 
stead of using the pencil so much in 
your correspondence, write with a pen, 
and take some pains with your penman- 
ship. You don't know how many bless- 
ings the poor printers may call down on 
you. ^ 

I^^Attention is invited to the card 
of W. E, Dennis, of Brooklyn, in this 
issue. He is one of the very finest or- 
namental penmen in this country. 


This young man has recently gone to 
St. John, New Brunswick, where he is 
to teach writing in the business college 
of that city. He has been a painstak- 
ing learner, and has become a very good 
business penman. The past winter he 
taught several successful classes in the 
vicinity of St. John, and was highly 
praised by the local newspapers. 

We hope to hear from him frequently 
in the future, and to know that he is 
gaining ground as a 
teacher, where what 
talent one may pos- 
sess in that direction 
will be encouraged 
and remunerated. 

neglected as a profession, will attract a better 
class of young men from year to year. But upon 
none of these, save in favored and exceptional 
cases, where a son succeeds to his father's prac- 
tice, tan a young man depend for fortune, or 
even for immediate support. They, loo, offer a 
certain social dignity. But. as a rule, it is the 
laborer, artisan, or tradesman that has the belter 
chance of supporting himself ; it is the educated 
man that has more frequently to wail before he 
can pay his way. If, therefore, we educate our 
sons, il is all the better reason why we should 
provide, not indeed for their independence, but 
some aid during the years which they are likely 
to spend in waiting before they can achieve 

It is to be remembered, too. that these years 
of waiting may become, with such aid, years of 
scholarly or scientific accomplishment, if not of 
money making; years of strengthened prepa- 
ration; years that might introduce and brighten 
a career, instead of wasted years that cloud or 

John D. WlIIInmE). 

Below we give a specimen of off- 
hand penmanship, from the pen of 
the late John D. Williams. Mr. Wil- 
liams was widely known as one of the 
finest penmen this country ever pro- 
duced. In Packard's College Tell-Tale, 
for February, we find a very interesting 

the good and true in literature, as well as in art. 
He had a strong humorous side, and upon occa- 
sion, could "take on" a character with wonder- 
ful fidelity. He was a close observer of personal 
trails, and was the equal of Dickens in perceiv- 
ing the characteristic oddities of his friends — 
cither in speech or action — and these would 
stand out, in his imitation, with the distinctness 
of a Nast caricature. And he had friends — hosts 
of them— good and true. Although outspoken 
and independent, he never excited animosity, 
even with his competitors, and it is doubtful if, 
at his death, he had an enemy in the world. The 
reason lay in the very nature of the man. He 
could not hold enmity. In love with his profes- 
sion, he had a genuine respect for every man 
who was striving to excel in it, and he habitually 
took as much pride in other people's work as in 
his own. He had the remarkable quality of be- 
ing able to criticise his own work, and he often 
did it unsparingly. And he could just as clearly 
see the failings of others, and did not hesitate to 
point them out. His criticisms were just, and 
to an artist who wished to succeed on his merits, 

Mr. Williams's published works were the 
" Mount Vernon Series of School Copy Books," 
published in 1859 by Clark & Austin; "Wil- 
liams & Packard's Gems of Penmanship," pub- 
lished in 1867 by D. Appleton & Co.; "Wil- 
liams & Packard's Series of Copy Books," and 
"Key to Penmanship," published by Slote, 
Woodman & Co. in 1869. He died at Albany, 
January 6, 1871. 

man and Shaltuck, and a score of others, whose 
lively articles are not only entertaining, but in- 
structive in the highest degree. Who but Pack- 
ard could have written the fine sketch of Wil- 
liams, published in X\\(: Artjouman And Hin- 
man, too. has written some spicy things— just 
personal enough to make them of interest to all. 
What we want in a penman's paper is plenty of 
news, and not so much of dull reading. Give us 
a variety, and plenty of it, and we will roll up a 
list of names for you that it will do you good to 

I like your " answers to correspondents," and 
have been drawing up some questions that I am 
going to give you some day, and if you will 
answer them as fully as the plan seems to indi- 
cate, shall be greatly obliged to you. 

"Quii.L Driver." 

with good Eng- 
Mr. Sloan says: 

T. M. Sloan, in 
Harper s Magazine^ 
discusses this ques- 
tion with much abil- 
ity. He might very 
properly have spoken 
of the ordinary ele- 
mentary branches, as 
always helping in 
earning a livelihood. 
It is rather difficult 
for one to imagine 
any place where they 
would not be of some 
service. As to a good 
handwriting, that is 
almost a fortune of 
itself when combined 
lish, good spelling, etc. 

An education, yes ; but what sort of an edu- 
cation? A bricklayer's education, an artisan's, a 
fanner's, would indeed help him to earn a living. 
A college education would give him a social ad- 
vantage, but it would not, in itself, increase his 
chance of earning a living ; it would rather di- 
minish it. For. as was pointed out in an inter- 
esting paper lately published in this magazine, 
our colleges do not, like the French and German 
universities, instruct a young man in the bread 
winning pursuits ; the American colleges are, on 
the contrary, institutions for general culture. I 
do not take up the question here of the amount 
and value of the culture they supply. The point 
for us lo note is, thai the educated young Amer- who has not a special education as a bread 
winner is worse off, as lo his money prospects, 
than the young American who can have no col- 
lege education at all. Dig he cannot, and to beg 
he is ashamed. Two of the professions at least 
are fatally overcrowded. The United Slates, 
with a population not greatly larger than that of 
the German Empire, graduates every year five 
times as many physicians ; for the German Em- 
pire limits the number of its doctors, and we do 
not limit that of ours. Very many of our phy- 
sicians not only wait years for practice, but never 
get into practice at all. It is much the same 
with Ihe profession of law. In both professions 
there are prices for a few, and failures, more or 
less complete, for the many. The engineering, 
mining, and other scientific professions offer a 
somewhat better chance, and public life, almost 

Tlie Penman's Art JonrnnI, 

Published by Daniel T. Ames, 205 
Broadway, New York, is a handsome 
eight page monthly, that is doing much 
good in giving learners throughout the 
country correct ideas respecting pen- 
manship, both plain and ornamental. 
Mr, Ames is himself a penman of ac- 
knowledged merit, and a man of un- 
usual liberality and enterprise ; his jour- 
nal deserves a liberal patronage from all 
classes of the writing 
fraternity throughout 
the country. 

sketch of this popular teacher, from the 
pen of S. S. Packard, Esq., proprietor 
of the New York Business College. We 
make the following extracts ; 

He was bom in the City of Pittsburgh, in 
1829, but his boyhood days were spent in New- 
castle, Penn,, at least until he was eleven or 
twelve years of age. He showed an early love 
for writing and drawing, and it is said that a 
piece of chalk or charcoal and a board fence, 
would come as near making him perfectly happy 
as anything could. Those were the days of per- 
ipatetic writing masters, wherein wonderful re- 

sults were achieved "in 
light, with quill pens. 

It was in one of these 
the boy received his fin 
tion of his future fame, 
boy, clerk 

en lessons," by candle 

vriting schools " that 

mpetus in the direc- 

He was, while yet a 

several of the Ohio River steam- 

his " manifests" excited much at- 

tention, on account of the good 
skill displayed in their arrangement. While yet 
under age he was employed as Teacher of Pen- 
manship in Duff's Commercial College, Pitts- 
burgh. While in this capacity, he executed a 
wonderful piece of ornamental pen work — an 
enlarged copy of "St. George and the Dragon." 
For a number of years this picture was displayed 
at Barnum's Museum, comer of Ann Street and 
Broadway, taking its share with the "Albino 
Girl," the "What is It?" and "Washington's 
Nurse." in distending the eyes of the rustics. 

Mr. Williams was not a man of literary cul- 
ture, but he had a remarkably fine perception of 

Clarksville, Ark., Feb. 21, 1S81, 
To Ihe Editor of the Penman's Gazelle : 

I wish to call your attention to a peculiar ad- 
vertisement in the February number of the Sun- 
day Mnj^azine, of New York, on page 259. I 
see the parties use Henry Collins' autographs, and 
they are the same as appeared in the Gazettk. 
Can you tell me how to make your ink ? 
Yours truly, 

John Hill 

Three Forks Rkkdv, W. Va., ) 
Feb. 19, i88r. ( 
To the Editor of (he Penman's Gazelle : 

In answer to your invitation in the Gazette 
for young men and women to correspond with 
you, who may wish to better their prospects in 
life, I desire to say, that I am a boy in the back- 
woods of West Virginia, and am desirous of 
making a respectable living. Can you tell me 
how I may do so with the pen? I think I will, 
some time, attend a business college. 

J. K. Fields. 

Manchester, N. H., Feb. 24, 1881. 
To the Editor of the Penman's Gazette : 

The first issue of your paper has just reached 
me, and I am much pleased with it. I hope that 
as you progress with it we may be favored with 
contributions by such writers as Packard, Hin- 

[From the Church 
Exponent, Rev. R. 
Harcourt, author of 
''Rambles Through 
the British Isles" 
editor, Jersey City.] 

Gaskell's Compendi- 
um OF Forms— Educa. 
tional. Social, Legal and 
Commercial, embracing a 
Complete Self-teaching 
Course in Penmanship 
and Book-keeping, etc., 
by Prof. G. A. Gaskell, 
Principal of Jersey City 
Business College, N. J. 
Published by Fairbanks, 
Palmer & Co., Chicago, HI. 
This magnificent vol- 
ume contains some 500 
pages, handsomely illus- 
trated. The typography 
and execution of the book 
is almost faultless. The 
work is dedicated to the 
young men and young 
women of the United Slates, in whose interests 
it was prepared, and for whom we know of no 
more valuable compend of useful knowledge. 
Here we have rules and forms for letter writing, 
for politeness, for conduct in all the varied re- 
lations in society ; rules for the home and fam- 
ily, for business and pleasure. Here, too, are 
legal forms, abstracts of the Slate laws, for the 
benefit of the business man, the mechanic and 
the farmer indeed, for all. It willbefound to be 
an invaluable book of reference. It illustrates 
more fully and applies more extendedly and prac- 
tically the true principles of business and home 
life, than any work of the kind published. It is 
well worthy of a place in every home. It will be 
found an excellent directory for general use and 
reference, and also for instructions on the various 
subjects for which it is prepared. 

[From the Chicago Inter-Ocean, 
March 3.] 

Professor Gaskell has advertised in the 
Inter-Oeean regularly this season for several 
months, as well as last year, and our readers are, 
no doubt, well acquainted with his promptness 
and system. His Compendium is the most pop- 
ular system of self-teaching penmanship in the 
world, and has had a sale eclipsing everything in 
that line ever published. We commend Mr. 
Gaskell and his Compendium to our readers, the 
former as a good, prompt man of business ; the 
latter as the model self-instructor for every 
young person wishing to acquire a splendid 
handwriting without attending a business col- 


Oliver (JtildKiiiitli. 

{Continufd from third page \ 

Johnson, it was coldly received. Gar- 
rick knew the popular taste so well, he 
would not produce it at Drury Lane ; 
and when it was offered at Covent (Jar- 
den, then just opening, one of the best 
scenes was hissed so positively that it 
was thenceforth omitted. The author 
received about $2,500 from the sale of 
the copyright and from benefit nights, 
which was much more money than his 
books had brought him. 

At this time, the elder Newbery. Gold- 
smith's early patron, died. This loss 
did not tempt him to accept the invita- 
tion of an agent of the government to 
write, in the interests of a party, per- 
sonal libels, for which he would have 
received good compensation. 

The money received from the " Good- 
natured Man" was quickly spent on a 
set of chambers in Hrick Court, Middle 
Temple. These were decorated, and 
then began a series of parties of a most 
extraordinary character. For the en- 
tertainment of his guests, Goldsmith 
would play the buffoon, or anything 
else ; but it did not please him that the 
familiarity he thus encouraged took the 
shape it did, and that he was considered 
as a jester on other occasions. 

Debts increased, and the inconveni- 
ence of them grew greater. Success, 
too, excited jealous attacks of spiteful- 
ness from the literary Bohemians of the 
day, and Goldsmith could not, like 
Johnson, treat these with indifferent 
contempt. His sensitiveness, and per- 
haps his vanity, too, made such attacks 
very painful ; and he could not at once 
rise above them. The strong support 
of Johnson, who was then the great 
literary umpire, was a strong rock of 
defence. " Whether, indeed," Johnson 
asserted to a distinguished assembly — 
" whether, indeed, we take him as poet, 
as comic writer, or as an historian, he 
stands in the first class." 

In 1769, Goldsmith entered into an 
engagement with Griffiths to write a 
" History of Animated Nature." There 
were to be eight volumes, and eight 
liundrcd guineas were to be paid for the 
copyright. It was a curious project to 
engage a man, whose knowledge in this 
line was almost /»/, to prepare an eight 
volume work upon it. The ignorance 
betrayed was most ludicrous, as, for ex- 
ample, the announcement that the " in- 
sidious tiger was a denizen of the back- 
woods of Canada." Nevertheless, the 
book was, as Johnson said it would be. 
" as entertaining as a Persian tale." A 
" Roman History/' which, like his other 
histories, was a compilation, appeared 
while the "Animated Nature" was in 
process of completion. And from this 
time this kind of work superseded, in 
great measure his original productions. 

On the 20th of May, 1770, Goldsmith 
being then in his forty-second year, the 
" Deserted Village" appeared. This 
poem had been expected for some time, 
and received a welcome of ])raise which 
even the reviews were unwilling to im- 
pair. Now that the poem has borne the 
test of over a century of criticism, it 
stands, and must ever stand, as one of 
the most delightful contributions to 
Knglish literature. It was gracefully 
dedicated to Sir Joshua Reynolds, who 
returned the compliment by painting a 
picture, on the engraving of which he 
put this inscription : *' This attempt to 

express a character in the * Deserted 
Village" is dedicated to Dr. Goldsmith. 
by his sincere friend and admirer. Sir 
Joshua Reynolds." 

The success of the " Deserted Vil- 
lage" enabled Dr. Goldsmith to visit the 
Continent, in company with Mrs. Hor- 
neck and her two daughters. But, al_ 
though there was much to enjoy, a spirit 
of dissatisfaction pervaded the party, 
and Goldsmith, at least, was glad to 
return to England. 

There he resumed his finery and his 
frolics. Again he compiled histories 
and biographies, with such eagerness as 
his necessities enforced. He continued 
his witticisms, which were so often mis- 
taken for wounded vanity and envious 
spite, and was Joved, despised, courted 
and misunderstood as before. 

Again he decided to write a comedy, 
the success of the " Good-natured Man" 
encouraging him to try that vein once 
more. " She Stoops to Conquer" was 
the outcome of this resolve. Col- 
man, manager at Covent Garden, hesi- 
tated long about taking it, but Gold- 
smith's friends insisted. During the 
rehearsals Colman avowed his distrust 
of the play, and it was under very dis- 
couraging circumstances that, on the 
15th of March, 1773, the night arrived 
when the public was to judge of its 
merits. Goldsmith's agitation was so 
great he could not go to the theatre, but 
wandered around St. James' Park until 
a friend found him, and persuaded him 
that his presence in the theatre was 

The piece was a success from the 
beginning, and the proceeds justified the 

Although the money that came in was 
as much as could be expected, it did but 
little to relieve Dr. Goldsmith from his 
embarrassments. The light heart of 
youth was gone, and burdens began to 
weigh heavily. His health became 
affected. Depression of spirits and irri- 
tability attacked him, and he quarrelled 
with the booksellers, and even had one 
or two serious tiffs with Dr. Johnson. 
He wrote part of a poem, " Retaliation," 
in which he sketches, with his masterly 
pen, the characters of some of his asso- 
ciates. This was his last work. 

A nervous fever, aggravated by mental 
disturbances, laid him low, and on the 
night of the 25th of March, 1774, in his 
forty-sixth year, he died. He was 
buried in the churchyard of the Temple, 
but all traces of the grave are lost. 
Some of his friends placed a cenotaph 
to his memory in Westminster Abbey, 
and Johnson wrote the inscription. 

The announcement of his death was 
received with many demonstrations of 
sorrow. Burke burst into tears, and 
Reynolds threw aside his pencil for the 
day. But the loudest grief came from an 
assemblage of those upon whom Gold- 
smith had spent a large portion of his time 
and money in unwise charity or worse. 
If he could have restrained his incli- 
nations and his taste for gambling, his 
life might have been prolonged, and his 
years would have been full of comfort 
and honor. But his failures are past, 
his achievements remain to us, and it 
would be a hard heart that had no place 
of honor for gentle Oliver Goldsmith. 

Getting at the Point 

Men arc guided less by conscience 
than by glory ; and yet the shortest way 
to glory is to be guided by conscience. 

In the chair 
Where hb paren 
But he didn't thi 

For the tiny, pointe 


Sticking through. 

So behind the loung 


For he though, he' 


When the parent ra 

»ed the 

And upon the pin-p 


Judgment soun 


Then he heard his f 


II unbid. 

hat boy has lost his 

Letters and Letter Writing. 

One man has very little to say, but he 
puts it with a kind of epigrammatic 
lieatness, while the other gives it the 
curtest of negatives or assents. One 
man contrives to put an element of per- 
sonal kindness into his slightest missive, 
but the other manages to preserve his 
coldness and distance even with ink 
and paper. In printed volumes of cor- 
respondence I always look out for the 
very short notes. They are frequently 
the raciest and most characteristic of the 
whole set. Many persons who would 
not take the trouble of reading the won- 
derful despatches of the Duke of Wel- 
lington, are glad to read any of those 
innumerable short notes in which " F. 
M., the Duke of Wellington, presents 
his compliments" to an immense variety 
of people. We must all enjoy the short 
notes of Mr. Ruskin and Mr. Carlyle, 
and we all value notes from our corre- 
spondents, albeit they are not Ruskins 
and Carlyles, which come under the 
denomination of " short and sweet." 
There are some people who write even 
kind letters in an ungracious manner, 
and others who possess a most obliging 
way of disobliging us, and are very 
clever in the combination of the suaviter 
in modo with the fortiter in re. 

It is a common remark to make, that 
in these days people have ceased to 
write letters. They used to write epis- 
tles, but now they only send messages. 
Like all other sweeping remarks, this 
generalization is only partly true. There 
are people who write, or ought to write, 
with constancy to each other. There 
are the lovers' letters, which always 
constitute a tremendous item in the cor- 
respondence of the country, and which 
almost disarrange the public service on 
and about the 14th of February. Then 
there are the letters of brothers and sis- 
ters, which should be ever so bright and 
interesting in purity of affection and 
harmony of interests. Then there are 
letters which parents write to their chil- 
dren, and children to their parents. 
Then there are some people who main- 
lain such constant intimacy and friend- 

ship that they write to each other regu- 
larly, though it may be at long intervals. 
There are many persons who are called 
to write letters in every one of the 
capacities that we have mentioned ; and 
when years roll by and much corre- 
spondence has accumulated, we may truly 
say of such men, as we say of all men, 
that each man writes his own memoirs. 
I have heard of good children who, in 
all quarters of the globe and through all 
vicissitudes of fortune, have never ceased 
to write to the old home once a week. 
They have left memoirs rich in moral 

There are some people who never 
write letters. Of course this is not ab- 
solutely true, because sudden emergen- 
cies arise when it is possible to escape 
writing any more than to escape talking. 
Still, they hate it, and hold aloof from 
it as much as possible. You cannot 
keep up the social ball unless you help 
to toss it to and fro. More than that, 
there are people who naturally wish to 
be written to. If they do not receive 
the letters which ihey expect, they nat- 
urally feel hurt, and, not without reason, 
consider themselves neglected. You 
can often do no kinder or more Chris- 
tian act than sit down and write a long 
letter to some sensitive minded friend, 
to whom such a letter must be as the 
very wine of life. 

PayiiifT for a Kiss, 

At a race course in Normandy some 
Englishmen were admiring the pictur- 
esque costumes of the women of the 
country. Several of the gentlemen 
jockeys, slightly excited by the impres- 
sions of their ifcjruner, were gathered in 
a knot, admiring not only the costumes, 
but the captivating faces of the women 
of Normandy, whose beauty was heigh- 
tened by the piquant originality of their 
lofty lace head gear. These sportsmen 
were uttering their comments on the 
passers by in a loud tone of voice, when 
their attention was arrested by the extra- 
ordinary beauty of a young woman, 
evidently just married, who at that 
moment passed by. She was walking 
in the midst of a group of country lads 
and lasses in their silk dresses and long- 
tailed, short-waisted black coats, and in 
the company might be seen the black 
cassock of the cure and the vicar of the 

"What a beauty!" exclaimed one of 
the sportsmen ; " on my honor, I'd give 
two sovereigns for a kiss of her rosy 

" Hallo ! here is a bifstek who says 
he'll give two sovereigns to kiss our 
Louise," said a bumpkin, in black velvet 
vest and hob-nailed shoes. 

"Ah! ah!" cried several of the giris 
together, " how generous ; two louis are 
not Peru!" 

"Well, then. Til give three," said the 

The young woman to whom the pro 
vocation was addressed, looked toward 
the Englishman, and smilingly said : 

"It would give you a great deal of 
pleasure, then, monsieur?" 

" Oh, an immense deal !" 

"Well, in that case," continued she, 
after a little hesitation, "give five louis, 
and here is my cheek." 

Thus challenged, his liberality would 
not have backed out had it cost him 
twenty guineas. The five golden pieces 


were drawn from his purse, and placed 
in the young woman's hands, who 
honestly performed her part of the 
contract, and received a brace of kisses. 

" What a windfall !" cried she, gaily ; 
" here, M. le Cure, are five gold pieces 
for the poor of our parish." 

As she finished, acclamations rose on 
all sides. 

"Oh! if that is to be the use of the 
money, a guinea more for the poor," 
said the sportsman, and the accla 
tions were louder than ever. 

A Turkish Tost Office. 

A Turkish post office must be an ex- 
:ellent place for the amusement of those 
ivho have the sense of humor. The 
Cologne Gazette describes a scene at one 
of them, as follows : A turbaned Otto- 
1 slowly approaches the pigeon-hole 
of the post office. He bows repeatedly 
to the official, and, laying his right hand 
on his breast, exclaims, " May the noble 

lorning be fortunate for you, sir !" 
Official, returning the salutation, in- 
quires, " What is your pleasure ?" 

"Thy servant desires a few stamps — 
postage stamps — in order to send letters 
to Europe. My son, Abdullah Effendi, 
iglass merchant, of Ak Serai, has travelled 
to London, and his family wishes to 
write to him. I, myself, indeed, do not 
^ess the accomplishment of writing ; 
but a relative, the grandson of my first 
'ife's great uncle, the great pipe bowl 
lanufacturer of Tophane, is master of 
that art, and he will pen the epistle for us." 
' Very good ; and how many stamps 
do you want, sir?" 

" Ah ! my jewel ; how many do I re- 

lire ? One, I suppose, will not be 
sufficient, for he will not return yet for 
four weeks ; so give me two." 

" Very good ; here they are — two and 
a half piastres." 

"What is that thou sayest, my lamb? 
Two piastres is what I used to give some 
years back, when Abdullah was pre- 
viously in London. Wait ; it was 

"Quite right, Effendim ; but since 
then the fee has been altered, and the 
price is now greater." 

" Is it so, apple of my eye ? The 
price is greater ; alas ! alas !" 

Herewith the Turk pulls out a roll of 
notes, on seeing which the ofllicial ex- 
claims, " No, my diamond, no ! We take 
no paper money here. You must pay in 

" Eh, what ! you take no paper ' Why 
not? Surely it is good money of the 
padishah in whose realms you are. 
Well, well, 1 will give you hard money. 
I have some with me in copper." 

"No, Effendim," replies the official ; 
"we don't take copper either. You 
must i)ay in silver." 

" Silver ? By my head, I have none ! 
Do me the kindness of taking copper. I 
will pay you the agioj" 

" Impossible, Effendim ; I am not 
allowed to take it." 

" Well, what am I to do, then, my son ?" 

"Go to the money changer; he is 
sitting there in the corner." 

" Ah, me, it is very hot ! Won't you 
really take copper ?" 

"I cannot, under any circumstances." 

" Very well, then, you shall have sil- 
ver. Here it is." 

" Thanks." 

This part of the business being con- 
cluded, the Turk asks : 

*' When will the letter be sent off ?" 

" First tell me, father, when do you 
intend to write ?" 

" Oh, to-day ! as soon as I get back 
from the fish market, whither I must first 
go, I will have the letter written." 

" Then it will be dispatched in 
morning, if you bring it here before two 
o'clock this afternoon," 

" Excellent ! And when will the 
answer come back ?" 

" Well, Effendim, that will depend or 
when your son posts his reply." 

" Writes his reply, my lamb ! Why, 
what are you thinking of ? He will do it 
at once, of course. Do you think h( 
will keep his father waiting?" 

" Very well ; in that case the answer 
will arrive quickly. You may, perhaps, 
get it in ten days." 

"Bravo! bravo! Then I will come 
back in ten days' time. Good-by ! 
May Allah lengthen thy shadow, my 
heart !" 

" Good-by, sir ; and may thy beard 
luxuriantly flourish." 

Auecdotes <if Ole Bull. 

The Youi/i's Companion tells the fol- 
lowing of the famous violinist, Ole Bull : 

Upon one occasion, a visitor laughed immod- 
erately at one of the violinist's witty stories, and 
afterward apologized for seeming rudeness. 

" Oh," said Mr. Bull, " do not mind ; I like to 
see any one natural. Do not be ashamed of 
laughing or crying when you feel like it. It is 
strange that human nature is prone to make an 
excuse for its better impulses." 

Upon one occasion a friend had called upon 
him to invite him to lake a ride in the suburbs 
of Boston. At about the same time, he heard 
of a littleboyof his acquaintance who had broken 
his leg, and was unable to leave his bed. 

"I m«st decline j-our kind invitation to ride," 
he replied to his friend ; and he passed the after- 
noon in playing the violin for the amusement of 
the little invalid. 

While upon a concert tour in New England 
he went into a barber's shop in a small town, 
where he was to play. As he entered the shop 
he found the barber fiddling away with more 
strength than skill. 

As the barber began to lather the musician's 
face, the latter remarked : 

"So you play the violin?" 

" Oh, yes," was the rejoinder ; " I am going to 
hear the famous Ole Bull to-night, and I expect 
a great treat. Have you ever heard him?" 

"Often," said the violinist. 

"How do you like his playing?" continued 
the barber. 

" Oh. he plays pretty well, but I am never fully 
satisfied with his work." 

" Is it possible?" asked the barber. "Well," 
said he, " I am going to hear him to-night, and 
I shall judge for myself." 

When night came, Ole Bull discovered the 
barber in the audience, a most attentive listener. 
When the violinist entered the shop again the 
next morning to be shaved, the barber said ; 

" I have broken my fiddle all to pieces." 

Ole Bull made him a present of a good violin, 
and gave him, from time to time, some most val- 
uable instruction. 

[From the Home and Farm, Louisville, 
March 1.] 
Prof. G. A. GaskcU warns all persons against 
a fraudulent concern of Boston, which advertises 
under the name of " Prof. Gargell's Compen- 
dium," Mr. Gaskell claims that this concern is 
gotten up to reap the benefit of his reputation 
gained by honest dealing and an immense outlay 
of money. 

[From the Cindnnati Enquirer ^ March 3.] 
Our readers, by this time, are pretty well ac- 
quainted with Professor G. A. Gaskell. They 
know, as we long since found out. that he is as 
prompt in filling all orders for his Compendium 
as the latter is beautiful and complete for its 
purpose. We hope to give Mr. Gaskell the same 
space next year. This is the last time our read- 
ers will see his advertisement this season. 

The Great Ruby. 

The first and most famous of existing 
rubies forms part of the imperial states 
crown made for Queen Victoria in 1838, 
embellished with all the gems left after 
the destruction of the regalia during the 
period of the Commonwealth, and subse- 
quently added to by purchases. This 
ruby, standing in the centre of the Mal- 
tese cross, on the top of the British 
crown, and the most conspicuous gem on 
it, is believed to be, on tolerably good 
authority, the same as that worn in front 
of the helmet of King Henry V. at the 
battle of Agincourt. Unlike famous 
diamonds, rubies have no proper names, 
but this one in the British crown might 
be called the "Agincourt." Its history 
can be traced back to the year 1367, 
when, after the battle of Najara, near 
Vittoria, King Pedro of Castile pre- 
sented it to Edward the Black Prince. 
This " Agincourt," if so it can be called, 
has a small hole bored through it, after a 
fashion common in the East, to be hung 
by itself round the neck. The hole is 
now filled in the front part by a small 
ruby, to be distinguished only from the 
stone by close examination. Of about 
the same size as this ruby is another, 
formerly among the regalia of Austria, 
but of the present existence of which 
little, if anything, is known. The Em- 
peror Rudolph II. received it in 1360 
from his sister. Queen Dowager of 
France, it being valued at the time at 
60,000 ducats, or about ^^30,000. It 
would now probably be worth not far 
from half a million sterling, the ruby 
having increased in value more than any 
other precious stone. 

Orr-Haii<1 Floiirislics. 

id deceit are two of the 
to combat. It is easier 
:h a statesman than a 

worst qualiti 
to dispute 

Pleasure is seldom found where it is 
sought. Our highest blazes of gladness 
are commonly kindled by unexpected 

Write your name in kindness, love and 
mercy, on the hearts of those you come 
in contact with, and you will never be 

The Stars : the Alphabet of Omnipo- 
tence. The Flowers : the Language of 
Angels. The Birds ; the Singers of 
God's own music. 

To pronounce a man happy merely 
because he is rich, is just as absurd as 
to call a man healthy merely because he 
has enough to eat. 

"Better to be alone than in bad com- 
pany," True ; but, unfortunately, many 
persons are never in so bad company as 
when they are alone. 

No man knows what the wife of his 
— no man knows what a minis- 
gel she is — until he has gone 
through the fiery trials of this 

with h. 

The qualities of your friends will be 
the qualities of your enemies ; cold 
friends, cold enemies ; half friends, half 
enemies ; fervid enemies, warm friends. 

The best dowry to advance the mar- 
riage of a young lady is when she has in 
her countenance mildness, in her speech 

wisdom, in her behavior modesty, and | busy skinning their dogs, preparatory 
in her life virtue. | to hauling to their meals." 

The last, best fruit, which comes late 
to perfection, even in the kindliest soul, 
is tenderness toward the hard, forbear- 
ance toward the unforbearing, warmth 
of heart toward the cold, and philan- 
thropy toward the misanthropic. 

There is no school like God's large 
schoolhouse. And there are no school- 
days to compare to the threescore and 
ten years in which we move to and fro 
about this schoolhouse of our Father with 
our books not slung over our shoulders, 
but carried in the heart. 

A gentleman who was interceding 
with Bishop Bloomfield for a clergyman 
who was constantly in debt, and had 
more than once been 
was a man of talen 
concluded his eulogi 
fact, my lord, he is quite a St. Paul, 
"Yes," said the bishop, drily, 
sons oft." 

Ivent, but who 
nd eloquence, 
by saying, ' 

Little Hits. 

When a boy walks with a girl, as 
though he were afraid some one might 
see him, the girl is his sister. If he 
walks so close to her as to nearly crowd 
her against the fence, it is another fel- 
low's sister. 

They were walking by the seaside, and 
he sighed and she sighed ; and she was 
by his side and he by her side, and they 
were beside themselves, beside being at 
the seaside, where she sighed and he 

There is nothing as strong as habit. 
It is told of a physician who always 
demanded payment on the spot, that he 
was so particular that when he pre- 
scribed for himself he used to take a 
guinea out of one pocket and put it into 

He was too solemn a preacher ; he 
didn't suit in Nevada. The chairman 
of the farewell committee expressed it 
well. Said he: " Now, you git, pard; 
we ain't agin religion out here, and it 
riles us to see a feller spilin' it. Git." 

"Do you love her still?" asked the 
judge of a man who wanted a divorce. 
" Certainly I do," said he ; "I love her 
better still than any other way, but the 
trouble is she will never be still." The 
judge, who is a married man himself, 
takes the case under advisement. 

An aged colored man was hastening 
home from church, and was asked why 
he was in so great a hurry. "Oh, no- 
thin" partiklar, boss," was the answer, 
on'y I jess heerd at de confrunce dat 
Sam Johnson's fell frum grace, an' I 
thought I'd get right home 's soon 's I 
could 'n lock up my chickens ; that's 

"So you enjoyed your visit to the 
menagerie, did you ?" inquired young 
Sillabub of his adored one's little sister. 
" Oh, yes ; and do you know we saw a 
camel there that screwed its mouth and 
eyes awfully, and sister said it looked 
exactly as you do when you are reciting 
poetry at the church sociables." 

The intelligent compositor of the 
Binghamton Republican, who was re- 
cently handed a paragraph which read : 
"The lumbermen in this vicinity are 
busy skidding their logs, preparatory to 
hauling to the mills," set it up to read, 
"The humbler men in this vicinity are 


{mm Gazette i 

iWkalioti mial be trceived by ihc jotti o 


handtomfly U»ind copy of "GASKEI.L'S COMI>EN- 
DIUM OF LAWS AND FORMS,"* toy} qii»no vol- 
ijinc of over five hundred pace*, (upetbly llliatnied wiih 
««l and liihc^rapliic ptaia «nd wood cuta ; the most com- 

ihouund* of dolbn. The liihognphic full page tpectmens 
or ponmanihip, the hinU on Ukching writing, inuructions in 
punctuation, i»e of upitab, correct expreuion, writing 
biwine* and locial letter*, book-keeping and busincs forms, 
commercial law, etc., etc., make ft ot the gr^iest value lo 
every one who wiiho to nvajl himxelfof (he bot helps to 
Micce* in life. 

I'lie price of ihi. edition of the book i* $Ji.ilO. 


At neveniy.five cenU each, we will mail TOWNSEND'S 
ANAI,YS1S OP LEITER WRITING, .1 very complete 
.-.nd h»ndv>me manual, price gt.SO. 



: ttt34, NEW YORK Cll 


D. R. Lillibridge, of Davenport, Iowa, 
reports a very large attendance, 300 
daily, at his business college in that 

A. H. Hinman, it is said, has opened 
a business college of his own. 

Prof. Russell, of JoHet, 111., has re- 
cently written some very interesting 
articles for the Penman's Art Journal. 
They have the true ring. 

A. B. Capj), one of the finest penmen 
of the Pacific coast, is now in San 

The business college at Portland, 
Oregon, is sending out some beautiful 
specimens of penmanship. 

D. M. Wingate writes us from Car- 
bondale. Pa., where he has been teach- 
ing several writing classes. He is an 
excellent writer. 

\V. H. Gibbs, "practical penman" at 
the Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege, Starkville, Miss., sends us several 
neat specimens of his handiwork. 

H. C. Clark, formerly of Pottsville, is 
now conducting a commercial school at 
Shamokin, Pa. He sends us a neat 

J. M. .\dams, Laceyville, Ohio, writes 
a good hand. Shall be glad to hear 
further from him. 

L. Madarasz is now devoting his atten 
tion exclusively to card writing, and is 
doing a targe business. See his card 
among our advertisements. 

ery best that can be selected by those 
wishing to reach the entire country : 

Scnbnft'i Monthly, New York. 

St. Nicholas, " " 

fVeekly Sun. 

IVeetfy World. 

iVilruMs, " " 

Fmnk Leslie's Popular Monthly^ New York. 

Staside l.ibmry, New York. 

Youthi Companion, Boston. 

American Culti-isilor, " 

Inttr-Ocean, Chicago. 

Western Rural, " 

Enquirer, Cincinnati. 

Herald and Presbyter^ Cincinnati. 

Jfome and Farm, Louiikville. 

Farm and Fireside, Springfield, O. 

Leader, Cleveland. 

Blade, Toledo. 

Sunny South, Atlanta, Ga. 

Witness, Montreal, Can. 

Star, " 

Globe, Toronto, " 

Peterson's Magacine. Pliiladelphia. 

These publications are first-class, and 

constitute the most desirable list that 

be made up. The publishers have 

treated us most generously, and it affords 

IS much pleasure to make this acknowl- 

dgment. Our advice, as an advertiser 

of considerable experience, is to first 

find the best possible mediumSy and when 

found, to stick to them. One thing more : 

don't believe greatly in advertising 

agents. No one understands quite so 

well what is wanted, in most cases, as 

the advertiser himself ; and by doing 

isiness direct with the publishers he 

,11 bring his business more fully to 

their knowledge, and more frequently 

re their good opinion and co-opera- 

Tlie Best AdTertlsbi^ Hediams. 

For several years we have advertised 
in a large list of periodicals in this 
country and Canada, and thoroughly 
tested the merits of the different leading 
mediums. To business men we can 
recommend the following as being the 

Carelestt Siibsciibers. 

In order to receive an answer from 
, the following named persons must 
write us again, and give their full post- 
office addresses. It looks to us some- 
s as though we had an unusually 
careless lot of subscribers ; but other 
papers, no doubt, are similarly afflicted ; 

I. F. Clark, Pleasant Grove. 

J. W. Perry, Woodbury. 

G- M. Rounds, Greene. 

Charles Ebenbeck, Jordan. 

E. M. Colson, Alaska. 

Samuel M. Berntheisel, Columbia. 

T. B. Smith, Wellington. 

S. W. Davis, . 

James Seeley, Auslinhurg. 
Asbury I. Hamlin, Salisbury. 
Joe Barrow, Ml. Pleasant. 
Geo. J. GraefT, Bristol. 
Mrs. Charlotte Axford, Orion. 
W. P. Campbell, . 

, Golden's Bridge. 

H. E. Spaulding, Townsend. 
Emile S. I,e Leiistte, St. Kilts. 

, West Franklin. 

W. J. McMakin, Central City. 
T. N. Plympton, Dorchester. 
W. T. Bent. New Hampton. 
R. K. Randolph, Blackstone. 

F. J. Gibson, Choctaw. 
E. D. Trump, Highland. 

, . {Incloses $1.) 

May Warren, . 

C. H. Abbott, Grovcland. 
Jas. O. Lustur, Fiticastle. 

C. Erickson, . 

A. B. Cort, St. George. 

G, W. Bowman, Hanover. 
Leslie L. Orear, Shawnee Mound. 
Jno. T. Foster, Rockland. 

All these letters contain money. 
Others of the same sort, not valuable, 
are thrown at once aside, and nothing 
whatever is done to get the full address. 
We must insist upon greater care on the 
part of our correspondents, otherwise 
we can't answer their letters or fill their 

TowKSBKD's Analysis of Lhttir Writing, with > large 
number of examples ol Model Business Leiien. By 
Calvin Towmend. author of " Analysts of the Con- 
stitution of the United Sotes." •' Analysit of Commer- 
cial Law,"eic. etc Published by Ivtson. BLtkemsn. 
Taylor a Co.. New Vorlc. 

style of business correspondence, iheit penmanship hw 
l,een improved. «.d they are desirous also of remedying 

"^ PaNMANSHrrhasm 

ircsent we are taxed to our utmost to supply it promptly 

ailed to fill all orders promptly at three Jays' neliee. and 
.in always fill any ordinary order the same day. 

1, and been ordering it from us for yean. These are th< 
Ont hundred and fifty thousand copies have now beer 
licce. alphabets, and other changes, is still better than any 

\ousand. By that time our work 

it where it is— at the head of : 


Brooks' Gbovb. 

Livingston Co.. N. Y. 

Every one sending us another subscriber, this montl; 

ill receive a copy of Mr. Lilley's new book. " StUction 

for Autograph and Writing Albums," as a premiutr 

iVe have ordered a supply of 1,000 of these books i 


, UNI' 

Will send one dozen Cards, with your 
making a har " 
receipt of 30 


dlRerenl styles, making a handsome autograph, 
eceipt of 30 cents. 

n af fiouriihing. Both for 

:rVilly and promptly filled. 
P. O. Box 161. jBRSBv City, Naw Jkrsbv 


Executed by W. E. Dennis, who is commended by the 

MENS of PEN WORK wHl be sent by mail 

Off - Hand Floi .risking, such as Birds. •. 
EAGt.B5. etc.. ISC. each . Larck Specimess. for fi 
sent on roller, fioo; Pt^iN Written Cards, a 

^risked, soc. per doz. ; An E 

For Fifteen New Subscribers sent 
us BY A Subscriber, 


Compendium OF Forms: 

Educational, Social. L«^l and Commercial. 

Embracing a complete Self- Teaching Course 

in Penmanship and Book-keeping, and 

Aid to English Composition, 

Including Orthography, Capital Letters, Punc- 
tuation, Composition, Elocution, Oratory, Rhet- 
oric, Letter Writing in all its Forms, the Laws 
and By-Laws of Social Etiquette, Business, Law 
and Commercial Forms, Complete Dictionary o£ 
Legal and Commercial Terms, Synonyms, Abbre- 
viations. Foreign Phrases, Poetry, etc. 

Also, a Manual of Agriculture and Mechanics, 
with a Complete Guide to Parliamentary Prac- 
tice, Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies, 
Organization and Conduct of Meetings, etc. ; 
Game Laws of United States and Provinces ; 
also, the following Tables for Ready Reference ■ 
Financial History of the United States. 
Political History 

Naval History 

Glance at Our Foreign Trade, 

Compute History of each State and Territory, 

U. S /or 1870 and 1880, 
Educational and Religious TahUs, 
Metric System of Weights and Ofcasttres, 

And many impo.Unt htalklics not found in other works. 

One Large, Elegantly Illustrated Quahto Volume, 

oiriH AS A PBEi^nnt ros nFTzitr hzw bosscbibzss. 


, Daily . 

for refer, 
itly issued, a undoubtedly "(jaikcH's Compendium ol 

■Sm\ knowledse, thi 
. lace, at least, amon 

eful books for refei 
-Boston Ci 
It contains a vast amount of valuable information. 

John D. Long, Cou. 0/ Mast. 
m.x book^of the kind I h»ve ever seen ; is 
Natt Head. 

Gov. 0/ Ne^ Ham'psh 

I hAvc examined your " Gasketl'!. Compendium of Forms" 
with much interest and satisfaction ; while the book is of 
great value In families, the business man — in fact, everybody 

r-Coi'. o/Ne^u Hampshire. 

:ded want, and will benefit all who 

Hon. Marcus L. Ward, 

Ex. Got,. 0/ New Jersey. 

aluable information. 
rHBODOBR P. Randolph, 

AVtt, Jersey. 

Packard's Businen College, New York. 

rorld of'i^^ma'tian careful'ly'^nan^c^'claJfiTd 
icd. The work is^MiM^wr/^/'-ar/tV-a/. and cannot 

J. E. Souls. Principal, 
BryiUlI & Siratton Business College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

U decidedly the best and only complete work of the kind. 
W. H, Sadler. Principal. 
Bryant, Siratton & SAdler College, Baltimore, Md. 

1 have ejianimed it carefullv. and with great interest to 

Shodd find its waj 

H. £. HmnARD. Prinripal. 

ny similar work which has or 
on a more liberal plan, ant 

cuh disbursements, will avoid a 
. and will grow wiser by having 


G. A. Gaskell, Publisher. 

NEW YORK, JUNE, -1881. 

Vol III,-No. 4, 

Knpid lliisliicss Wrilij 


In the bus 

niinity there is 
to-day, as there has been for many 
1 constant demand for good rapid 
writers, not always those whose penman- 
ihip conforms in every respect to the 
friting teacher's rules, or that is orna- 
nental in its character. Our best com- 
nercial schools and systems of in- 
triiction in penmanship are conforming 
nd more to the necessities of the 
times in this direction. It is true that 
ally systematic hand may be, at the 
same time, an easy and rapid style ; but 
nrhcre there is a great deal of writing to 
l)e done, and the writer is taxed to his 
Utmost to keep up with his work, the 
handwriting assumes, gradually, a dif- 
ferent character from that of the profes- 
Bional expert, and must be judged from 
n entirely different standpoint, 
iiyr- T 1 . . writing schoo 

Mr. Jacobs represents a large class of thirty years ago. 
our best yoimg business men. thpse who I r doubt if what I 
ispire to write handsomely, as well as j shall write will 
rapidly. He is employed as head in- 
voice clerk in the wholesale drug house 
Of Richardson & Co., 704 to 714 North 
Main Street, St. Louis. His writing is 
■emarkable for its apparent ease of ex 
scution, its uniformity of appearance, 
leneral smoothness and perfect legi 
bility, qualities in handwriting that 
'cry good business man appreciates 
Though he has not brought his ripid 
ruing to the perfection that Robert C 
ipencer has attained in his, or Mr 
?ackard, Lillibridge, William Allen Mil- 
er, or Cowley, who have given hand- 
irriling greater study and care, have in 
heirs, yet there are few who will not 
i simple signature alone all the 
:haracteristics we have named. 
During the year we shall give several I ^1'° 

IVrithig anil IVritiii)- Teachers of the 
Olilen Time. 

To the Editor of llie Penman's Gazette. 

SiK ; When I acceded lo your request [o wrile 
up this subject, I did not know llie precise na- 
lure of Ihe contract. If I had known it, I might 
or might not have undertaken the work. There 
IS enough in it thai is personally pleasing to my- 
self—especially that part which relates to my 
own experience ; but I cannot judge as lo how 
much or what part of that experience will inter- 
est the general reader. When we arrive at " a 
certain age," and our lives lie behind us rather 
than before us, the incidenls of those early 
days seem to attain to strange proportions in our 
memory, and those things which in themselves 
are smallest grow lo be largest in our affec- 
tions ; and as we approach the western hori- 
zon, the mirage which rises over the 
assumes a strange beauty and bnll 
become, as it were, color blind. 
I see you have 

eastern pi 

—which was not until 184G, when I purchased, 
wilh much perturbation and many misgivings, n 
doicn of '-Gillott's 303 " on a card— I carried 
witli me a fine hone, which I used successfully 
in replacing worn points. My first dozen steel 
pens thus lasted me nearly a year. T use more 

My first writing school was lauphl in the vil- 
lage of Eden, Delaware County. Ohio, in the 
winter of 1842-3. I was then sixteen years old, 
and thought I was a good deal of a man. My 
charges for tuition, however, would har<!ly suj). 
port this assumption, for. if I mistake not, they 
were placed at the modest figure of Jifly cents 
for twelve lessons. I am sure about the fifty 
cents, but the lime may possibly have been 
longer. As I think of it now, I conclude that 
Edenic slate of my mind may have had 

lething to do with the liberality of my tuition 
for I was desperately in love with one of 

promised your 

ers that in 

paper I will 

speak "of the plan 

of c o n (I u L- 1 i n g 


you have made it 
I give you full 

such portions as 
may seem 
sistent with this 
puipose nnd thus 
save your space 
for be 

safe in fact to 
predict anything 
for me, for I can- 
mark. My game 
must alwnys be 
"on the wing," 
and then I can 

pecimens of rapid writing ; our readL.„ 
re particularly interested in that branch 
If penmanship. Merchants and bank- 
lay to our teachers : " CJive us good 
fapitl writers ; we don't want any orna- 
nental flourishers or flourishes." 

Each department has its own sphere, 

owever. The writing teac/i^r should 

not only a good writer, but a first 

:Iass ornamental penman. If he is not 

as little qualified to fill ///> place 

copy-hand scribe the post of in- 


nwayall the 

The days of which I have been speaking ante- 
date the steel and gold pen era. I do not re- 
member at this time to have ever seen a metallic 
pen in use. Among my father's trinkets. I rec- 
ollect, was a silver pen wilh silver points ; but no 
one could write wilh it. It was simply a curios- 
ity. Hence, as you see, the item of penmaking 
was an important one, both in the business of 
leaching and of fine writing ; and he who had 
the knack of making a good quill pen was sure 
to be in demand. I had that knack in an exas- 
perating state of perfection, and from the age of 
twelve lo Ihe lime I left school I was (he cham- 
pion quill-whitller among teachers and pupils. 
,1,,^,, , I an<l really had most of that work to do. I have 

tluable paper by often thought that if I could have had a capital 
CK ■ , . ... " ^^^"''*"g^ ^ro- of one cent for every quill pen I had made, and 
-Ssor Shattuck S Hints to Teachers, | '^ qoartcr of a cent for every one I had " mend- 

ut gives no credit to the paper from "^*1" "P to "'e age of sixteen,! 
Iiich it is taken. We are sorry to see I '^ ™°*'^'*' competence for almo 
^ ^^^^ it shows the alarming degeneracy ! "1:^:^^::^.., g.. 

' '' ''^" •''^'- ' ' =••». il>al after I bcg.u to use steel pens 

woods, carrying the writing books lo and fro 
that r might write the copies during Ihc day. 

At this time I projected a grand scheme of 
professional work, whinh, in the spring of 1844. 
I attempted to put in practice I first spent 
three or four weeks in " getting up " specimens 
of penmanship, practical and ornamental. They 
were ambitious as lo quality, but modest as to 
size— no " piece " being larger than twelve by 
fifteen inches. These I framed myself, being the 
son of a carpenter, making the frames out of 
butternut wood, and painting them artistically 
with lamp-black and oil. I enclosed the " speci- 
mens "thus framed in a box, to which I filled a 
cover fastened with padlock and hinges, and or- 
namented wilh a handle not unlike the modern 
travelling bag. 

Thus accoutred, I started from home on foot 
bright spring morning. The fin 

liles di< 

3 attract my cupidity was 

it. I arrived there in the 

delay in hanging up my 

(I of the only hotel. At 

The Canada School Journal, a hand- 
ome, as well as 
ivay, copies fro 

would have been 
it any line of busi- 

worlh fifty cents a 
■^ bushel. That 

brought the whole 
the paradisaical basis of simple 
barter-a bushel of wheat for a course of lessons 
m writing. It would have been < 
sistent if the commodity had been apples instead 
of wheat. The most that I can remember about 
ihal school is that I boarded willi my sweetheart, 
who seemed to require a good many private les- 
sons, and that when my wheat was gathered in 
and sold, I had a clear cash capital of something 
less than fxs^ dollars. As I had never owned so 
much money before " in a lump." my own esti- 
mate of my importance in the community can be 
easily imagined. I left Eden— not as Adam had 
done in the twilight of our genealogical history, 
in disgrace— but a proud and self-conscious man, 
who had triumphanlly entered upon his career. ' 

about lo leach a class in Tcnmanship 
11, provided a certain number of schol- 
could be obtained. I next prepared my sub- 
paper, and started on my tour of per- 

The first person I called upon was the princi- 
pal doctor of Ihe town, and its most influential 
citizen. He treated me with great courtesy, 
and in the course of conversation asked me 
if I had ever seen Dolbear's book on Pen- 
iship — whereupon he hamied me a 
small octavo volume filled wilh engraved copies 
and printed instructions, as to writing, pen 
making, and the general business in which 
I was engaged. These were the first en- 
graved Lopies I had ever seen, and they filled 
me with wonder and despair. \ discovered, all 
at once, thai I could neither wrile nor teach 
writing, and instantly made up my mind lo aban- 
don my pretensions, and lo go home and sludy. 
I inquired if the doctor would sell iht book, 
paid him a dollar and a half for il, went back to 
the hot5l,iook down my specimens, packed them 
in their little box with a feeling of disgust and 
id took up my tramp for home. 

of the summer I practiced writing, 
and during the next fall and winter, having ac- 
red a little more courage— or brass— I per- 
ambulated about the towns of Central Ohio, a 
veritable itinerant writing master 


■ scnoou 


two years I spent in leaching dis- 
trict schools and " boarding around "—the first 
months at a compensalion q{ seven dollars a 
ifh, pieced out by leaching evening wriliiig 
schools during the winter, which necessitated a 
ighlly tramp of some twelve miles through the 


In the fall of 1845, having driven my business 
lo such successful issue as to be a half owner of 
two ponies and a buggy. I started, with a part- 
ner, for Kentucky. The buggy was loaded wilh 
our moderate baggage and framed " specimens," 
and our two selves— our plan being lo gel up 
writing classes on our way. and thus enter the 
"dark and bloody ground "wilh a '■pocket full 
of rocks." 

The first halting place we struck was Pikelon, 
e county town of I'ike County, Ohio. I re- 
member it as a brisk town of some thousand or 
inhabitants, lying along the east bank of 
the Scioto Kiver. Il had one newspaper— or, if 
more, I do not remember ihe other — a weekly, 
published by a queer fish namc.l Pike. Of 

■ papt 


■' The Pilulmiatt ; " and, as ihe town was situ- 
ated on the lutn/>iJt^. and the river abounded in 
/lA-, there are «omc extenul rcuons why I can 
caU ihc place to mind. The chief reaions, how- 
ever, are internal and cuential, as they mark »n 
important era in my life. The fint newspaper 
office I ever smelled wa» that of the Piketonian ; 
the finl movable type I ever saw made up ihc 
solid column! of this sheet ; my firil newspaper 
" puff " (not the latf), wu ujH^osed of this very 
type ; and the fir*t " corapoSiion " from my pen 
that ever appeared in prim, appeared in this 
paper. The subject, a« I remember, was " The 
Solilocjuy of a Bachelor." / was the bachelor, 
of course, but what the soliloquy was about, I 
have not now the »Iightcst idea. The friendship 
thus eslabliihed between Sara Pike and myseU 
lasted through his life, as it will last through 
mine. He wan one of the most ubicjuilous edi- 
tors (hat this country ever saw, and his passion 
for starting fresh newspapers (always demo- 
cratic), amounted to a mania. He even counted 
it among his chief honors, and paraded the list 
of risen and defunct journals, as an Indian chief 
does the scalps of his enemies, as at once an 
ornament and an insignia of courage and skill. A 
year later, when Pike pulled up his lent stakes 
and removed to Maysville, Kentucky, where he 
established the Kentucky Flag, some inquisitive 
editor inquired, "Who is this Sam Pike ? Where 
is he from ? " Prentice, of the Louisville Jour- 
niil, responded, "He is from everywhere except 
Maysville, and he will soon be from there."— an 
easy prediction, which did not long wait for its 
fulfilment- At Pike's solicitation. I was a fre- 
.juent contributor to the I-hg, often, like an- 
other Silas, "dropping into poetry "—sometimes 
l>lank verse— very blank. To my editorial friend 
I had the promise of great things in me, and I 
remember, in an editorial reference to one of my 
"oflcrings." he predicted that I would soon 
"scale the topmost, towering height of Mount 
Parnassus." It was the first lime I had ever 
heard of Mount Parnassus, and I had not the 
slightest idea what country it belonged to, nor 
what tackle would be necessary in order to 
"scale " it. As to the character of my "poetry," 
there is, unfortunately, no room left for charila- 
lilc surmises, for before me stands, in a frame, 
printed in bronze on black satirr, a "Carrier's 
Address" of the Keithuky Flag, for the new 
year of 1848, presented to ine, the successful 
author in competition, beginning thuily : 
-- Come, Ivtcn \t friends, itnd patrons draw nur. 



and running on in this original manner through 
twenty or thirty stanzas. I keep it framed as a 
terrible warning, and so far it has proved efficient. 
Whenever I feel myself struck with a wave of 
the divine atllalus, I have only to glance at my 
framed poem, and repeal the above couplet. 

night, s 

Mr. Bartlett. and it was the occasion of were invited to "lay aside thei 
with that pioneer institution as a and face the blackboard, while th< 
permanent teacher of writing. I began teaching teacher gave an explanatory leclr- 
for Mr. Bartletl on the first of January, 184S. ' = 
At that lime there were not ten Commercial or 
Business Colleges in the country. Among those 
under this general designation were Gundr>- iV 
Bacon's Mercantile College of Cincinnati. Jones' 
Commercial College of St. Louis, Duff's Mer- 
chant's College of Pittsburgh, and Comer's Com- 
mercial College of Boston. Gundry and Bacon 
were Barllett's chief competitors. Bacon had 
been a teacher of book-Weeping for Hartlett, ^nd 
Clundry, a pupil of P. R. Spencer, had been an 
itinerant writing master, and a student of law. 
The competition was a very violent and personal 
one. and often disported itself through the col- 
umns of the daily papers in the most spicy and 
vituperative manner. The teachers of the two 
colleges were expected to participate in the 
rancor of the conlpelition ; but these expecta- 
tions were not realized. 

I had an unaffected admiration for Gundry's 
penmanship, or rather for his method of teach- 
ing. I had never before seen writing taught 
from the blackboard, and I would frequently 
find an excuse for calling on him at about ihe 
lime I supposed him to be in the midst of one of 
his illustrative lectures. Gundry was an intelli- 
gent man, well versed in commercial law and in 
some of the leading principles of political econ- 
omy. He was, in fact, the first man to make 
the study of commercial law part of a busines.'; 
course of instruction. 

But he was a very lazy man— conslilutionally 
so— and his school and surroundings bore the 
impress of it. He was lymphatic to a painful 
degree, and the efforts he used to make under 
the instniclion of that noted gymnast. Prof. 
Barrett, to overcome his tendency to inertia, 
were regular studies in mental and physical war- 
fare, wherein the physical usually came out 
ahead. But he could play checkers from morn- 
ing to night, and his favorite attitudi 

recumbent position ii 
checker board before 1 
separated in 1849 or 18 
at tlie old stand, corr 
streets, until called to 

1 easy chair, with a 
m. Gundry and Bacon 
0. and Gundry continued 
r of Walnut and fifth 
nolher sphei 

years s 

. Bacon died in Madis 
. ago. 




SCHOOl^ (?) 

teacher of writing and things 
ending from December, 1845, 

But I found 
iiployment for 


My career 
in Kentucky, 

to December, 1847, cannot be 
I can only say that, as I now vii 
in the highest sense, successful 
plenty of good friends and full 
all my v.iried accomplishments 
teaching writing, 1 was fainting /i 
teaehittg tinging school (/•) I have 
these callings, and marked them with an interro- 
gation point purposely, for I am quite sure that 
those pcreons of whom 1 borrow money, and 
who may chance to read this history, will sec 
propriety in this distinction. The peculiar de- 
signation of my musical efforts will also be ob- 
served, for it must be acknowledged that I taught 
much more " singing school " than singing. But 
I abate nothing from my claims as a portrait 
painter. As an artist — in oil — I feel that I stand 
alone ; and many of my pictures did the same. 
No one who ever got a good strong view of one 
of my life-size portraits ever questioned who the 
artist might be. There was always much more 
doubt about the subject. I remember painting 
a portrait of old Dr. Ilindc, of Mooreficid, 
Nicholas County, so life-like, that the cob pipe 
in his mouth could be recognized at a distance 
of ten paces I Almost the first remark every- 
body made on seeing it was, " How natural that 
cob pipe does look ! !" And it did look natural. 

Barllett, whom 1 always revered as the fathei 
of the modern Commercial College, was a genius 
in his way, and well deserves more than a pass, 
ing notice at my hands. When I first knew him 
he must have been about forty-five — possibly n 
year or two younger. He was small in stature 
with a spare figure, a small head, bright piercing 
blue eyes, and a sharp squeaking voice. Mi; 
movements were nervous and eccentric, and hi; 
good humor was perennial and contagious. A 
more hopeful man never lived. If Dicken; 
had known him before DaviJ Copperfield was 
written, there would have been a few extr: 
touches given to the portraiture of Wilkin- 


)ols where writing was separately 

iir or half an hour a day was gi%'en 

and practice in this art. Barllell's 

rong point was in book-keeping, and that part 

f arithmetic covered by percentage, embracing 

especially "inlerest " and "compound average ;" 

and he was never happier or more effective 

hen he had before him fifty wide awake 

young men ready to catch his explanations "on 

the fly." 

Too Many Things. 


While in Kentucky, I corresponded with a 
young man in Cincinnati, who was attending 
Bartlelt's Commercial College. He showed the 

I thought Barllett the greatest man living— 
in his line, and had not the shadow of a 
doubt that if "Old Zach" would only make him 
Secrelar)- of the Treasury, the financial success 
of the country would be assured. Bartletl's 
method of running a commercial college was 
quite different from the modern method. He 
was the father of the " life tuition " plan, for 
which no modern teacher thanks him. There was, 
however, an excuse for that device which does not 
now exist. The commercial colleges of ihose 
days were composed almost entirely of young 
men who were their own masters. A large 
share of them were in business, and took such 
odd hours as they could snatch from their daily 
employment to post themselves in book-keeping, 
writing and arithmetic. They came when they 
ple.TSfcd, and went when they pleased, and did as 
they pleased ; and they generally pleased to 
study very hard when they the chance. 
There was no classification, as under these cir- 
cumstances, there could not well be. Each 
student had a drawer in which to put his small 
stock of paper and writing materials (text books 
were never used), and when he wanted lo spend 
an hour or two al work, he would find a vacant 
place at some table, and go at it. When he 
wanted the help of a teacher he would rap on 
the table or give a sign, as one calls a waiter at a 
Usually, once a day, the students 

introduced, and, knowing this, I took occasion 
to invite Sam Pike, on one of his trips to the 
city, to "come in and hear Barllett leclure." 
We were to meet at the Pearl Street House, and 
march up in a procession of two. I had notified 
Mr. Bartlett of the proposed incursion, and sug- 
gested a certain topic upon which I knew he 
could "spread" himself. When I called for 
Mr. Pike, I discovered that he had meantime 
met some friends, and had arrived at the hilar- 
ious stage of "a good time." My first impulse 
was to declare the engagement "off." but no 
sooner did the great editor see mc, than he took 
in the object of my call, and proposed to start 
at once for the college. Thinking lo divert his 
mind by a little walk, I took his arm, and we 

When we reached the corner of Fourth Street, 
I proposed to turn down for a promenade ; but 
it was " no go." He had started out to hear 
Bartlett, and hear Bartlett he would ! So I got 
him up the stairs as best I could, and, by a little 
mano-'uvring, got him sealed in the lecture room 
near the door, taking the next seat myself, lo 
keep hiin company. Bartlett was in the midst 
of his lecture on "Closing the Ledger," and 
was very eloquent in his asseverations and reit- 
erations of " To or By Balance,"' and " To or By 
Profit and Loss." Pike listened a moment — 
being under the impression thai he was at a 
political meeting — and endeavored to catch the 
drift of the argument. Then he turned lo me 
and'winked an awful witik, and jirst ns IJartletl 
reached the climax of his speech, he rose to his 
feet, and looking the speaker in the face, ex- 
claimed : "1 deny it, sir; every word of it! 
Now. bring on your bears !" 

I don't know how 1 managed to get him out 
of the room, but I did it, and when I had seen 
him safely at his hotel, he thanked me, with 
tears in his eyes, and offered me a full partner- 
ship in his business, and his lovely and accom- 
plished daughter for a wife. 1 take some credit 
to myself for declining the kind offer, but I 
knew it was made in a moment of overweening 
gratitude, and I could not, with honor, take ad- 
vantage of the circumstances. So I contented 
myself with his earnest assurance that I was 
" the only man on God's cartU" to whom such 
an offer could be made. To say the truth, I 
didn't care so much for the partnership, but I 
was flattered by the offer of the daughter. 

My memory of Bartletl's College is something 
by itself — too sacred, in some respects, for me 
to altempt to dissect it for other eyes and ears. 
If I have ever done anything in my chosen pro- 
fession worthy to be remembered, I feel il lo 

There nevt 
ten or spoken than the following from 
the r.iituatioml U'eekiy. The system 
of cramming in Ihe schools has ruined 
more of our youth, both physically and 
mentally, if not morally as weH, than 
anything else. In the matter of educa- 
tion people seem to have lost their 
heads : 

There is a tendency in our day to attempt 
the teaching of far too many things in our 
schools. There seems to be a general impres- 
sion that with the constant enlargement of the 
province of knowledge, the curriculum of the 
schools should be enlarged to correspond. Bui 
there is a decided limit lo possibilities in this 
direction. So much of the knowledge that has 
been given to the world of late years has been 
the result of the study of specialists, thai it is 
folly for a general student to attempt to master 
a lithe of it. Much more absurd, then, is it to 

have been in great ; 
socialion with R. M. Bartlett, who s 
ous man of seventy-five, holds his 1 
the expert accountants of the Queen 

In the winter of '49 »"<! "5°, James W. 
came lo Cincinnati to attend a course of me 
lectures, and through my acquaintance with him 
at that time, a new light dawned upon my vision 
as to the art of teaching an art. As I desire to 
say something particular about this chief of the 
Spcncerian lieutenants, I will save my breath 
(or another start. 

Sincerely yours, 

S. S. Packard. 

[We have taken the liberty to insert the head- 
ings as they appear, in Mr. Packard's cominuiii- 


ich this lithe or less in the c 

everything cannot be 
schools, and more, it is 
lot their mission to atlempl it. Our schools 
ihould teach a few things thoroughly and ivell, 
md by so doing, arouse in the young a desire for 
nore extended study. A few— a very few — sub- 
jects well understood, as far as the pupil has 
progressed in them, are far better than number- 
less topics merely touched upon. Don't try to 
teach your pupils toomnch, bat leach everything 
that you do teach with the utmost thoroughness. 
Your duty is not accomplished by simply inform- 
ing the young mind on this or thai topic ; you 
are bound lo endeavor to interest them in the 
acquisition of knowledge, to train and develop 
their faculties, so that future study will not only 
be profitable, but pleasant to them. 

Writintf Pens. 

The Newark, N. J., Busi/tess College 
Tri-Annual, comes to us handsomely 
printed, and containing several very 
beatiriful specimens of omaraenTal pen- 
manship. Its reading matter, too, is 
of a good order. We copy respecting 
ancient writing implements : 

It is well known that the ancients employed a 
certain reed for writing. The reeds were split 
and shaved lo a point like our quills. When 
goose quills first came into use, or wlio first bor- 
rowed from the emblem of folly the instruments 
of wisdom, is not known. 

Il has been asserted that quills were used for 
writing as early as the fifth century, according lo 
the history of Con.stanlius. The oldest certain 
account is a passage of Isidore, who died 636 
A. D., and who, among the inslruments employed 
for writing, mentions reeds and feathers. 

There exists, also, a poem on a pen, written in 
the same century, and to be found in the works 
of Adhelm, the first Saxon who wrote in Latin. 
Alcuin, the friend and teacher of Charlemagne, 
mentions writing pens in the eighth century. 
After that time, proofs exist which put the ques- 
tion of iheir use beyond dispute. 

Mabillon saw a manuscript gospel of the ninth 
century, in which the evangelists were represent- 
ed with pens in iheir hands. 

S. S. Packard sails for Europe, J 11 
9. Our subscribers will all wish hin 
happy voyage and a safe return. 


A correspondent in a country town 
in Pennsylvania, writes : 

'■ I have a desire to become a school teacher, 
and to gain an education. But 'he school I at- 
tend is a small commercial college and normal 
school combined. Wc all threw in together and 
hired Professor William Steel, teacher of pen- 
manship, for a month, but as soon as his time 

Whilst this discontented professor is 
browsing about in pastures new and 
green, why not " throw in " again, and 
get another man ? It is a relief to 
know that Mr. Steel did not steal away 
till his time was up. We hold him up 
as a model writing teacher. He per- 
formed his part of the contract, and 
did his work well, no doubt. 


The quill, "borrowed from the em- 
blem of folly to become the instrument 
of wisdom," and its younger brother, 
the modern steel pen, have been and 
still are the principal agents in forward- 
ing the civilization of the world. In 
speaking of the pen, I use the word as 
the symbol of what results from its use 
— the book, the magazine, the news- 
paper and the letter. 

" When in the depths of some Asiatic 
forest, shadowy with the green fans and 
sword blades of the palm tribe, and the 
giant fronds of the purple streaked ban- 
ana, a sinewy savage stood, one day 
long ago, etching with a thorn on some 
thick fleshed leaf, torn from the lux- 
uriant shrub wood around him, rude 
images of the beasts he hunted or the 
arrows he shot— the first step was taken 
toward the making of a book." 

In the above somewhat flowery lan- 
guage, an English writer of some note 
describes that important event in the 
history of the world. Countless have 
been the onward steps since then, and 
to-day a good book is the best witness 
of man's intelligence, as well as an 
honor to his mechanical skill. 

Writing was first employed to record 
events of history. In savage times im- 
l)ortant events were commemorated by 
the planting of groves, the erection of 
altars, and similar rude devices, each of 
which told to the simple savage some 
tale of joy or sorrow. But the trees 
rotted and the altars crumbled to ruins, 
the men who planted or erected passed 
away, and their descendants wondered 
what was the signification of the relics. 
The Peruvians and some other tribes 
recorded their history by the use of 
differently colored strings variously 
knotted. But the first great improve- 
ment to be noted in the manufacture of 
a book, is the method employed by the 
Egyptians. Important records were en- 
graved on slabs of rock or cut into metal 
plates. The skins of various animals, 
smoothly tanned, served them for paper, 
and finally they used the bark of the pa- 
pyrus, a reedy plant growing in the mud- : 
dy waters of the Nile, from the name of 
which our word paper was derived. 
The skin of the papyrus was in layers, 
and could be torn off in strips as smooth 
and perfect as parchment. 

Of course, as the material upon which 
the writing was inscribed varied, dif- 
ferent instruments for writing had to be 
employed — the chisel and hammer, a 
cut reed, dipped in gum water, which 
was colored with powdered charcoal or 
the soot of resin, etc. — these rude in- 
struments represented long ago the pen 
and ink of to-day. The Greeks and 
Romans also made use of wood, ivory 
or metal tablets, thinly coated with wax, 
upon which the writer scratched the 
characters representing his thoughts with 
a stilus, which was a bodkin of iron or 

The quill pen came into use, accord- 
ing to the history of Constantius, in the 
fifth century, but the earliest certain ac- 
count of its existence is found in a 
passage of Isidore, who died A. D. 636, 
where he mentions reeds and feathers 
among the instruments employed for 
writing. Adheim, who lived in the 



ry, wrote 
pen — it is written in Latin. 

The steel pen is an invention of mod- 
ern days, and although now in almost 
universal use, was, for a considerable 
time, unpopular with writers. This was 
owing, probably, to the fact that the 
first steel pens were poorly manufac- 
tured, and were much harder to write 
with than a quill. 

The steel pen of to-day seems to have 
reached the highest state of perfection 
— from the finest to the stub pen which 
makes a mark an eighth of an inch 
broad, there is an assortment of styles 
and sizes from which the most fastidi- 
ous can make a satisfactory selection. 
The chief advantages of the gold pen 
over one of steel, are that the ink does 
not corrode it, and it wears longer. 

Geniuses of late years have invented 
various kinds of fountain pens, cal- 
culated to save time and labor of fre- 
quent dipping. The stylographic pen 
is the most ingenious of these fountain 
pens, holding in its handle enough ink 
for a day's writing. It is rather too ex- 
pensive to come into general use. 

Compared with the results accom- 
plished by the pen — the spread and 
perpetuation of knowledge and learn- 
ing, the building up and increasing of 
business between men in different lo- 
calities, the execution of great reforms 
without the shedding of blood, the 
union in thought of friends far distant 
from each other, and numberless other 
blessings to mankind — how insignificant 
appear the results attained by the use of 
the sword — it is the contrast of mind 
and matter — of intelligence and brute 

The conquests of Cssar and Alexan- 
der bring no benefits to us of the nine- 
teenth century ; but the writings of 
Homer and Virgil still live to delight 
and instruct. William the Conqueror 
and Cromwell exist only as characters 
in history — the jjuppets of the historical 
showman — but Shakespeare lives in his 
writings, speaking to us daily through 
the mouths of his wonderful creations 

— his pen was the magic wand that 
made his name immortal. It was the 
pen of Washington that did far more 
good for this country than ever his 
sword accomplished — his pen left a 
series of addresses that might well be 
the political guide of this country. 

In extent of power and permanency 
of effect, the writer has greatly the ad- 
tage over the orator. The latter may 
be a Demosthenes in eloquence — he 
may move his audience to tears or con- 
vulse them with laughter — he may in- 
cite them to deeds of blood and carnage, 
or calm their previously excited passions 

— but his influence is transitory, and 
once the sound of his voice ceases, the 
effect of his words begins to die away, 
and very likely it is lost forever. 

The writer, on the other hand, ad- 
dresses a much larger audience ; he 
talks to each one individually at home, or 
wherever he may be ; he argues calmly 
with him, and the next day and the next 
week his words are still there for perusal 
— and so he is much more likely to make 
a permanent impression. 

The abuses of the pen by unprin- 
cipled men are great, but compared 
with the amount of good which is ac- 
complished through its agency, they are 
as a little tugboat alongside of a huge 
ocean steamer. 

Put not your pen to paper except it 
be for some honest and worthy motive, 
for what is written, is written, and 
stands against a man for ages — perhaps 

forever. ___^_____ 

The Nlffht Air Superstition. 

Before we can hope to fight consump- 

tion with any chance of 
to get rid of the night air superstition. 
Like the dread of cold water, raw fruit, 
etc., it is founded on mistrust of our 
instincts. It is probably the most pro- 
lific single cause of impaired health, 
even among the civilized nations of our 
enlightened age, though its absurdity 
rivals the grossest delusions of the 
witchcraft era. The subjection of holy 
reason to hearsays could hardly go 

" Beware of the night wind ; be sure 
and close your windows after dark ! " In 
other words, beware of God's free air; be 
sure and infect your lungs with the stag- 
nant, azotized, and offensive atmosphere 
of your bed room. In other words, be- 
ware of the rock spring ; stick to sewer- 
age. Is night air injurious? Is there 
a single tenable pretext for such an idea ? 
Since the day of creation that air has 
been breathed with impunity by millions 
of different animals — tender, delicate 
creatures, some of them — fawns, lambs, 
and young birds. The moist night air 
of the tropical forests is breathed with 
impunity by our next relatives, the an- 
thropoid apes — the same apes that soon 
perish with consumption in the close 
though generally well warmed atmos- 
phere of our northern menageries. Thou- 
sands of soldiers, hunters, and lumber- 
men sleep every night in tents and open 
sheds without the least injurious conse- 
(juences ; men in the last stage of con- 
sumption have recovered by adopting a 
semi savage mode of life, and camping 
out doors in all but the stormiest nights. 
It is the draught you fear, or the con- 
trast of temperature ? Blacksmiths and 
railroad conductors seem to thrive under 
such influences. Draught? Have you 
never seen boys skating in the teeth of 
a snow storm at the rate of fifteen miles 
an hour? "They counteract the effect 
of the cold air by vigorous exercise." 
Is there no way of keeping warm? 
Does the north wind damage the fine 
lady sitting motionless in her sleigh, or 
the pilot and helmsman of a storm tossed 
vessel? It cannot be the inclemency of 
the open air, for, even in sweltering 
summer nights, the sweet south wind, 
blessed by all creatures that draw the 
breath of life, brings no relief to the 
victim of acrophobia. There is no 
doubt that families who have freed 
themselves from the curse of that sujjer- 
stition can live out and out healthier in 
the heart of a great city than its slaves 
on the airiest highland of the southern 
Apennines. — £>r. Felix L. Oswalt/, in 
Papular Science 

Lady Experts. 

Of the twelve or fifteen hundred per- 
sons employed in the bureau of en- 
graving and printing, at Washington, a 
large majority are ladies, and the most 
difficult and responsible work perform- 
ed in that department is allotted to lady 
experts. The greenbacks and other se- 
curities issued by the government, from 
the time the paper is manufactured un- 
til the finished note or bond is issued, 

are subjected to a system of checking 
and registering at every step, so minute 
and precise, that the chance of any er- 
ror or dishonesty in the handling of this 
most valuable product is reduced to a 
minimum. The blank paper is as care- 
fully guarded as if it were already a 
circulating medium — for it will be re- 
membered that if the peculiar descrip- 
tion of paper tipon which United States 
notes and bonds are printed could be 
readily obtained by outside parties, 
whether by purchase or theft, the work 
of the counterfeiter would be very 
greatly simplified and facilitated. The 
sheets, before lieing wet, are delivered 
to the plate printers, counted and 
charged to them, and again counted in 
the presence of a lady assistant, who 
certifies to the count. Attached to the 
presses by which the wetting is done, 
are registers which automatically count 
the sheets a third time as they pass 
through. Next comes the examining 
division, where, after the fourth count, 
the sheets are dried and counted a fifth 
time. Lady experts then examine the 
sheets ; the defective ones are cancelled, 
and those which are pronounced per- 
fect go into the hydraulic press. From 
this powerful machine they emerge in a 
smooth state and receive another damp- 
ening, after which they are ready for 
printing. A long series of manipula- 
tions is now in store for them — the black 
impression, the red seal, the numljering, 
the trimming and the sejiaration, inter- 
spersed with drying, pressing, examin- 
ing and counting at every stage. After 
all else is done, they are counted a last 
time by lady experts, who put them up 
in packages of one thousand each, and 
they are then ready for the uses of Wall 
Street and the nation at large. 

The details of this momentous and 
complex business are interesting in 
themselves, but the point which we had 
specially in mind in calling attention to 
it, is the i)eculiar serviceableness of 
ladies in those parts of the work which 
require the keenest vigilance, most del- 
icate perception and minutest accuracy. 
The gentler sex is ordinarily regarded 
as prone to an unsystematic, capricious 
manner of work — sometimes exhibiting 
brilliancy, but very seldom the steady, 
sure, prosaic method which in opera- 
tions such as we have described is the 
one thing imperatively required. But 
it is demonstrated in the bureau of en- 
graving and printing that in this par- 
ticular of mechanical infallibility, or 
something very nearly approaching it, 
women are found more capable of meet- 
ing the demand than men. If they 
were not, we may be very sure they 
would not be there. And in the matter 
of skill and rapidity, as well as certain- 
ty, they are not wanting, if we may 
judge from the performance of one of 
the lady experts, who counts one thous- 
and notes in five minutes. To do this 
at all would tax the energies of most 
men, even if bred to the profession. To 
do it with such unfailing correctness as 
is demanded in this instance, recjuires 
such command of the faculties, mental 
and physical, which are brought into 
exercise in the work, as we have hither- 
to been apt to regard a peculiarly mas- 
culine endowment. 

A good way to get rich ! — become a 
good penman, then you can always com- 
mand a Jlourisliin^ capital. 



NEW YORK. June. 1881. 

V, t7 to SiS Itoff Strt*^.) 

G. A. Gaskell, Proprietor. 

All letters should he addressed as follows : 

P. 0. Box 1534. 
fUeinf York City P. 0. 
By keeping this in mind much time will 

Five hundred more subscribers have 
ecn added to our list the past four 
'ceks ; wc just tip the scales at an even 
ve hundred each time. Next month, 
vc hundred more. 

TiiK Last Chance. —Wc mail this number 
I.) many of our personal friends, who ouglil to 
subscribe for il. We cannot afford to mail it 
l<> tbcm /»-<•*'; if we could, it would certainly be 
a pleasure lo us to do so. This is the last time 
llicy will ^cc it, unless they subscribe, which wc 
hope they will do at once, so as to receive all 
ihc numbers without a break. 

Mr. PncknnVs RcininiHCOiiceH. 

When we engaged Mr. Packard to 
write for us a series of papers de- 
scribing; old time methods and men, we 
were confident they would prove inter- 
esting to our subscribers as well as of 
vabie to us. Mr. Packard has written 
freely and familiarly, not only of his 
own early experiences, but of others 
who, as foimders of the modern com- 
mercial college, are most interesting 
subjects. As the author of the Bryant 
^: Stratton Hook-keeping Series, the 
leading text books of the kind in the 
world, as well as other works used in 
our best commercial schools, and as a 
live and progressive teacher, at the head 
of one of the most successful and useful 
of New York's numerous important in- 
stitutions, he is widely known. He 
has arrived at that age where he can 
look back and i)oint out to us the won- 
derful progress that has been made in 
the one matter of penmanship and edu- 
cation for business. This he does in so 
attractive a manner that not one of our 
many readers will fail to become inter- 
ested in what he writes. His next paper 
will give his first impressions of such 
men as James W. Lusk, P. R. Spencer 
and John I). Williams. 

In our boyhood nothing in the way of 
reading matter ever pleased us half so 
well as Mr. Packard's "squibs," per- 
sonal and impersonal, respecting busi- 
ness education, his advice to country 
boys, and his more elaborate articles, 
such, for instance, as the preface to the 
old Bryant & Stratton Book-keeping. 
Wc read that over many times, and still 
think, as wc thought then, that it is as 
fine a specimen of good forcible Eng- 
lish as has ever been penned. The old 
book is gone, and the preface, too, may 
be lost with it ; but the latter ought to 
live in some shape, .-Vs long as there 
are young men and boys in the world, 
that preface will be appreciated, and its 
author loved and honored. 

llnsiness Collrgvs. 

The business colleges of this country 
and Canada have become a recognized 
necessity among the masses ; they sup- 
ply a want that no other class of schools 
has yet met or can meet. 

There are in the United States some 
two hundred business colleges and com- 
mercial schools. Many of our best 
trained teachers are connected with 
them. Like all other things in this 
country, where each individual marks 
out his own course unrestricted, they 
range all the way from the very good to 
the very poor. 

Hut the lii'e business school is an ad- 
vantage to the community where it is 
located. Its doors are always open to 
the youth at home and from abroad. It 
draws patronage to the town, and also 
gives to it an excellent class of young 
men, who grow up therein to become, in 
many cases, substantial, liberal business 
men ; it imparts to all who prosecute 
the course with energy, a good prepara- 
tion for the actual duties of life. 

As long as there are so many sorts of 
business colleges, so many grades, they 
will be criticised more or less, as a class. 
It behooves every highminded business 
college man to assume for his school 
just what he can perform ; he can afford 
to do no less, and he will certainly do 
no more. He will claim no impossibili- 

Business colleges have long needed a 
good class paper, of such a character as 
to command a large circulation. Wc 
don't know that there is any lack of 
fraternal feeling in the business colleges, 
but there is certainly a want of harmony 
and concerted action. The, Gazette 
don't aspire to meet this want. Though 
it circulates in all of these schools in 
this country and Canada, it has business 
enough of its own in its own field ; but 
we hope some one who can conduct a 
good paper of that kind will come for- 
ward and supply the demand that we 
believe really exists for a journal 
devoted to business education. The 
monthly, published some ten years ago 
by H. B. Bryant, was perhaps as good a 
sheet as we have had ; our business col- 
leges, no doubt, felt its loss consider- 
ably when its visits ceased. 

"I. N. H."of Detroit, Mich., a young 
lady writer of much promise, who has 
done good work as a contributor to sev- 
eral leading periodicals, will begin, in 
our next issue, a series of articles of in- 
terest to young ladies ; to those, in 
particular, who have begun to depend 
a little upon themselves for support. 
From a personal acquaintance with the 
writer, we can promise our readers sen- 
sible advice as to how to carry through 
many things that young ladies are some- 
times compelled to do. *' Find out what 
you can do best ; then do it cheerfully 
and well," is her motto, whether it be 
housework, keeping books in a store, or 
scribbling for the press. 

Laid Over. — An interesting paper 
from Professor W. P. Cooper, and an- 
other from Professor J. H. Warren, for- 
merly of the Philadelphia business col- 
lege, stand over till our next ; also sev- 
eral spicy letters from our subscribers 
on "matters and things." 

The Moss En^rariog Compntiy. 

The attention of proprietors of 
schools and business men is invited to 
the card of the Moss Engraving Com- 
pany, on our 8th page. This company 
will mail, prepaid, to every btisiness col- 
lege proprietor who will write them for 
it, a large proof catalogue of the differ- 
ent kinds and sizes of their plates, with 
their prices for each annexed. Their 
engraving is remarkable for its boldness 
and depth of line. The portrait and 
specimens of penmanship in this issue 
were done by them. Write for a cata- 
logue, and say you saw their advertise- 
ment in this paper. 

Our Penman President. 

JouET, lLt„, May i, i83i. 
To the Editor of the Penman's Gazette : 

Mr. Packard names James A. Garfield, among 
others, who are capable of giving us many 
reminiscences of the old time writing schools 
and writing masters. It is a source of pride and 
gratification to the (raternity to know that one 
of their number is at the head of this great na- 
tion, its chief executive. President Garfield is, 
undoubtedly, the best scholar, the most able 
statesman, and the finest penman ever occupying 
the office of chief magistrate. The introduc- 
tion, and prompt passage by Congress, of what 
is known as the Burnside Educational Dill, to- 
gether with the fact, that we have in him a 
president who will enforce the very letter of the 
hiw, ensure economy and honesty, is certainly 
one of the most hopeful of the many good signs 
of the times. It is a matter of congratulation 
among all classes of people. 

There is in his character many qualities that 
every reader of your valuable paper would do 
well to emulate. Wisdom, judgment, prudence 
and firmness are among these traits. There is in 
the industry that has marked his course a lesson 
for every young man; lie has been persistent 
and self-possessed, and has conquered every 
obstacle to success. No youug_man could begin 
lower down or achieve a greater triumph over 
poverty and lowly birth. Even his opponents 
admit the sterling worth of so manly a man. 

A short time ago I met one of his old juipils 
who had alteitded one of his first classes in pen- 
manship, lie remarked that no more thorough 
or painstaking teacher of writing ever lived. He 
did everything well, and with an earnestness that 
carried conviction with it. Ihc result of his 
teaching was to make life-long friends of his 
pupils 1 feel that Garfield, to-day, lias a warm 
place in his heart for every true teacher of pen- 
manship, and that he is as ready now .is ever 
before to speak a good woid for the piufession 
to which he once belonged. 

I shall read Mr. Packard's future contributions 
with increased interest; his experience has been 
varied and valu.ible. 

Truly yours, 

H. Russell. 

The Compenditmi of Pennuuiship. 

The ;r«/o'ff«, " published under the 
direction of the General Conference of 
the Methodist Church of Canada," m a 
recent issue says : 

In penmanship, as in painting, the old masters 
may never be excelled. Few ministers to-day 
preserve our conference records in such fine 
style as that in which James Mann, more than 
eighty years ago, wrote down the " Minutes of 
several Conversations " between the few provin- 
cial Uinerants of the time. Vet in his handwrit- 
ing every young man ought to strive to excel. 
When the foreman and compositor have to re- 
solve themselves into a committee over some 
confounding manuscript, or when the country 
shopkeeper occupies the attenlion of Ihc station 
master in the vain attempt to make out some 
city invoice, time, never more valuable than now, 
is sadly wasted. One of the best writers we 
have seen— Mr. A. F. Uuckley, of this city, has 
briefly explained to us the principles of Gaskell's 
system of penmanship. It is a system, and not 
a mere imitation. We advise our young friends 
to procure from Mr. Buckley " Gaskell's Com- 
pendium," mentioned in a circularwhich reached 
many of them last week. 

A flourished bird and quill, received 
from George G. Stearns, Ironton, Ohio, 
are samples of the fine work done by 

Another beautiful specimen comes 
from C. N. Crandle, of the Valparaiso, 
Ind., public schools. 

.\ correspondent wants to know the 
present whereabouts of C. W. Rice, some 
time since at the Chicago Business 
College — Kryant & Stratton's. 

A. W. Woods, of Quincy, 111., is a 
penman of much skill. Photographs of 
two of his ornamental pieces have been 
received ; the work is very good. 

The Pentnan's Art Journal is grow- 
ing better. It may seem odd, but it is 
true ; even so good a thing as the Jour- 
nal may be brushed up and improved. 
Competition does it. 

Fred. B. Chandler, formerly of Salt 
Lake City, is now acting as secretary 
for the General Agent of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, 78 and 80 Broad St., this 
city. He is a fine business writer. 

Seldon R. Hopkins, a well known 
accountant of this city, has begun the 
publication of a semi-monthly, The 
Book-keeper, which is rapidly gaining 
ground among the class for which it is 

Mr. F. B. Davis, until recently teach- 
er of writing at Cady & Walworth's 
Business College, Union Stjuare, this 
city, is now teaching large classes at 
Taftville and Jewett City, Conn. He 
is a very fine writer and deserves every 

L. Madarasz, the card writer, is using 
at present a very unitjue calling card ; 
there are four different styles of corners 
on each card. His penmanshi[) in the 
line of card work, etc., is steadily im- 
proving, and his cards the very best in 
the country. 

Those wanting good ink should write 
to Fred. D. Ailing, ink manufacturer, 
Rochester, N. Y. , enclosing ten cents 
for specimen cards, showing writing 
done with the different inks of which 
he is the proprietor. This small charge 
barely covers the cost of postage and 
paper. Mr. Alling's inks are unsur- 
passed, and he is doing his best to ac- 
commodate everv class of his customers. 

Funny. — There is nothing funnier 
than some of the innocent (?) blunders 
made by printers in setting up from man- 
uscript. Whitelaw Reid, editor of the 
New York Tribune, relates that, being 
called upon while editor of the Xenia 
Torchlight to "notice" a certain com- 
mercial college of Columbus, he wrote in 
plain hand, " it is a well-deserving insti- 
tution." Through a strange perversity of 
the types, he was made to say, "it is a 
//(■//-deserving institution." In the second 
paragraph of Mr. Packard's communi- 
cation in this issue, he wrote very dis- 
tinctly, " I give you full power to cut 
out such portions as may seem inconsis- 
tent, and thus save your space for better 
padding;*' but the inscrutable jirinter 
rendered the last two words " batter 



Oil Hand Floiiristiiii^. 

ht Teachers' Guide, a wide awake 
c<lucationaI monthly, has begun a series 
of papers on penmansliip, which are in- 
teresting and valuable to a large class 

eaders. The following, taken from 
February issue, evinces a good 

ivledge of the subject : 

fiamcntal penmanship is a distinct branch of 

irt. Wliilc not of as great utility as prac- 

writing, it is useful if not essential to the 
professional penman, and is universally admired 
by the lovers of fine pen work. Ornamental 

anship is regarded with awe by novices, 

rachcrs well know that many of the flour- 
ishcs, birds, scrolls, etc., dabbed of? in attractive 
style- by the trained pcnmnn, are far easier of 

tion than plain, symmetrical penmanship. 

mental penmanship opens a wide field for 
[he cultivation of taste and skill. It materially 
ids in acquiring that masterly command of the 
nnd and pen which produces in ])ractical 
Writing correctness of form, ease of execution, 
ind beauty of finish. It also enables the teacher 
display his practical writing to the best ad' 
untagc, and will win laurels for him where plain 
►eninanship would not. Many of our readers 
urc much interested in penmanship, and it is for 
heir benefit that we present this lesson in off 
land flourishing. 

.t secure good paper and ink. Unruled 

mp or foolscap paper will answer for practice, 

le white Uristol board should be used for 

ate work. The ink used should be black, 

,ml flow freely. Penmen generally use Japan 

ok mixed with Arnold's fluid, in proportion of 

) parts of the former to one of the latter. 

is makes a very good [jernuuent ink, though 

s not all that could be desired. The pen 

uld be fine pointed, elastic and durable. 

Uwaysuse a stmi^^ht-^^w holder when executing 

ental jienmanship. It should be rather 

horter than those used for ordinary writing. 

eminent penman says: "Hold the pen 
•/ the first two lingers, or between the first 
and thumb, and press the thumb carefully 
in the lower part of the holder, just above the 
where you can regulate the shading without 
ulty. The small finger rests on the paper, 
1 a rest is required, as it is when making 
ery short lines and fine shading. The pen is 
1 position for horixontal lines only. 
Keep the pen square on the paper, touchmg 
equally on each nib, and make every stroke 
-.onialiy from left to right, shifting the paper 
uit the direction you wish the curves to 
A good off hand penman keeps the workitf^ 
separated from the others, and constantly 
It about, but does not change the position 
f the pen, or the direction of the curves, unless 
e continuous, as in the swan, parts of the 
lird, etc." 

The whole arm movement is always employed 
1 this kind of pen work. This motion gives 
reat f reedoin and scope to the movements of the 
ten, and when once well mastered, it enables 
; itenman to execute elaborate flourishes and 
(old capitals with surprising ease and rapidity. 

VuliibilHy and lUc^ibility. 

It has become the fashion among edi- 
ors to couple Rufus Choate's hiero- 
lyphics with Mr. Greeley's hand-writ- 
ig; but the latter's was legibility itself in 
om])arison. The great editor wrote a 
apid, peculiar hand ; yet his composi- 
ors found little difficulty in following 

The Youth's Companion gives the fol- 
iving respecting Choale, written, no 
iibt, by that always entertaining 
writer, Hezekiah Butterworth : 
Tlie florid school of oratory never had a nn>re 
It represent alive than Rufus Choale. As 
rician he stood in the front rank, kept 
here uniil his death by the splendor of his im- 
tm. his fervor, and his verba! opulence. 
Ilaid headed judges and dry-as-dust lawyers 
I think much of his legal attainments. But 

clients did. especially if they were in danger of 
the extreme penalties of the law ; and juries by 
their verdicts endorsed him as one of the most 
winning of advocates. His glittering eye, dram- 
atic action, musical intonations and vehement 
passion, held them, as if encircled by a magician's 

There were, however, two classes in the com- 
munity who did not admire Mr. Choatc as an 
orator — the reporters and the compositors. No 
matter how expert a phonographer a reporter 
might be, his nimble pencil could not keep pace 
with the velocity of Mr. Choate's elocution. 

Quoting from " Othello," he once in Faneuil 
Hall used the words, " O lago! the pity of it, 
lago ! " Judge of the orator's surprise and the 
city's bewilderment, when they read in the next 
morning's paper, " O, I ai^ue \ the pity of it, 
I ai^ue?" And yet the best phonographer in 
Boston reported that speech. 

It is said that a Scotch printer left an Edin- 
burgh oflice because he was baffled by Carlylc's 
manuscript, the most illegible of handwriting. 
Going to London, he found employment at a 
printer's. The first " copy " put into his hands 
was a manuscript of Carlyle's. 

" What ! " he exclaimed, "have you got that 

were busy in making a legible copy of the 
for the press. 

Once upon a time, the Boston and Providence 
Railroad brought out a characteristic specimen 
of Mr. Choate's vehement eloquence. Like 
many corporations, before and since, that rail- 
road desired a slice of Boston's sacred spot, the 
Common. The company went to the legislature 
for permission to commit the sacrilege, and a 
committee of that body met to consider their 
petition. Mr. Choatc appeared in opposition. 
Drawing a beautiful picture of that oasis in the 
city, he said ; 

"Here, where the vernal breezes blow, you 
may now walk with your wives and children, 
and drink in all the charms of reawakening 
nUIure. But grant the prayer of the petitioners, 
gentlemen, nnd what will you have ? The 
scream of locomotives, the rattle of trains, the 
whir of machinery— Stromboli, Vesuvius, Etna, 
Cotopaxi — hell itself, gentlemen ! " 

A Popular MisUikc. 

The artist of the sid)joined dr; 
as inadvertently copied a jiopular 

Ornamental Flourishing and Writing, by W. E. Dknnis, Brooklyn, N. Y 

man in London, loo?" and seizing his hat and 
coal, rushed into the street. 

Not a few Boston composHors have felt a 
similar impulse, as the foreman handed them a 
take of Mr. Choate's manuscript. Its marvellous 
illegibility once defied the di 
an entire newspaper corps. 

Mr. Choate was expected 
to deliver a great speech. 
Public expectation was 
at fever heat. Knowing 
the failures of phono- 
graphers to report the 
rapid orator correctly, 
the editor of a Boston 
journal made arrange- 
ments wiUi Mr. Choate 
to print the speech from 
his manuscript, and an- 
nounced the fact. ." 

The speech was deliv- 
ered, and the manuscript si 
the editor. But not a m 
nor one of the printers, 

in i)osition, to which we would call the 
attention of all of our lady readers, and 
gentlemen, too, for that matter. In 
writing, the hand should never turn 
ide, but should be held up- 
upon the nails of the two 
last fingers. The 
correction of this 
mistake in pen hold- 
ing is always fol- 
lowed by rapid im- 
provement, both in 

in the 
of the 

sent immediately to 
in the editorial room, 
Id make head or tail 
lanuscript ; and the excited public read 
lext morning's paper an announcement 
nability, and that Mr. Choate's clerks 

Speaking of the 
.^^^.^ U i ^ art of writing, a wri- 
!iANi>. ter in one of our ex- 

changes says : 

"So important was this invention deemed 
among human arts by those who lived in times 
nearer to ils first accomplishment, and before 
the wonder of ils cxtraonlinary powers was 
blunted by lung pos:i<.-s»ion and common use. 

that iLs iuvenliuu was invariably attributed to 
divine inspiration. 

There has been much speculation (and to lit- 
tie purpose) as to what nation or people the in- 
vention of letters belongs, and the date of their 
origin. The honor has been claimed by all the 
ancient nations, and their claims may he said to 
be about equally balanced." 

The ancient systems of writing (the 
hieroglyphical) had, at least, three dif- 
ferent sources. "Appleton's Cyclope- 
dia" gives the Egyptians, Assyrians and 
the Chinese, equal credit. The art of 
expressing the art through the alphabet 
originated with the Phoenicians, and 
not with any other class of people. 

A R0811U of Bad SiioUIufT. 

Mary E. Bryan, the well known 
Southern authoress, writes in the Sunny 
South, of which she is one of the 
editors : 

It is recorded of the Lady Sarah Lennox, 
who came well nigh being Queen of Great Bri tain , 
and who did become the mother of the heroic 
Napiers, that even while her beauty and grace 
were stirring the heart of the young king, her 
spelling was bad and her punclualion worse. On 
the other hand, her successful rival, the plain 
little princess of Mechlenburg, who required 
age " to work off the bloom of her ugliness," 
wrote a beautiful letter — not half so sensible or 
piquant as Lady Sarah could have written — 
but perfectly correct, without a word misspelled 
or a comma omitted. It is said that ihis letter 
procured for her the honor of being Queen Con- 
sort. Can we doubt that the hard, stiff, precise 
mother of George made Lady Sarah's bad spell- 
ing the clenching argument to break off the 
match which she disapproved? It was quite in 
keeping with her character to imagine that a 
giri who could not spell, and would not pay at- 
tention to her stops, was unfit to be queen. 
Notwithstanding this defect in her composition, 
we cannot doubt that Lady Napier was a far 
moreinlclleclual woman than Queen Charlotte, 
who expressed her appreciation of Fanny Bur- 
ney, by ofl"ering her the position of waiting maid; 
and, as to the question of fortune in life, she can 
hardly have envied her rival the lot of being wife 
to a lunatic king, or her pride in being mother 
to " the first gentleman of Europe," 

A Young Nnsby. 

Padenarum, Ohio, Mny 3, i88i. 
To the Editor of tht Penman's Cazett : 

I hev bin reeding that articckle from Packard. 
That ShuU he tels about was a lusty hand at 
flurshishin. If he kud make whailes and rep- 
tills and rinosserosses and ellefuntsandso forth- 
with, he must hev bin a grater Barnum than 
Barnum hisself. But the laffingest part of it is 
whare Packard gets stuk for twentie-fife cence, 
and it tuke him livetene or sixelene year to pa 
offen the innomiuse obligashun. I don't wante to 
rede any moar, it makes me sick, besidse, I am 
not straung. My granfaither dide wonst in a fitt 
when he was ayunge man befoure biz marrage 
with his ncffey, and I enheritta tcngensy to that 
disorger. Bisness must be poorer up Neue Yorke 
waye than it ise doun hear. Monie iz amasin 
lite, as tile as the bois at elecshun; but I must 
dissembel, he semes to bee a onest sorte of a plowe 
boi, and fore that resine I fur^iv him, as he is 
preparin for heving ; ef he gose their with thee 
deekins from this plase their will be /iitin. I 
hope to mete him their myself. Whenn f gett 

: gome 

openn a riling skule, and not afour iff it laikes 
me al sumer. I wiiddent think of kommencin 
the bizncs withote a tlntnire nolligc off the artt. 
Giv my luv to awl inkwiring frens. 

William Shakkspere Swalf.ow. 
Mi naime ingicaites thait I swaller awl ihoes 
bige yarncs jest as eesy as a catt duse sope soods. 

man is known by — his penmanship [except- 
ing Whittaker). 

S. S." Packard will travel by the '"S. S." 

Republic — lots of interesting writing when he 

lurns, for here are four capital essays {S'sS to 


Is the penmanship i 

" I. Please give mc the name ol the he 
school journal of ihe United Slates. 2. What 
the movement for making the small letters? 
Who is the best penman in England ? also 
the United States? 4- Is '' » 60°^ 'J« to u 
an oblique holder (or ordinary writing ?"— T 
R. T., White Pigeon, Mich. 

I. We are acquainted with but few of | house edition, is 
the school journals. The J^eic York , or is it different 
■ "el- Athens. Pa. 
mind as good 
The combii 

" What i% the very lowed price at which I can 
gel a copy of 'Ga.'^kcll's Compendium of Uws 
and Forms ?' 

■• I do not wish to make a nuisance of myscU, ^^^^^^ Journal, published by A. N. Kel 
but I do want the advice of some one like your- th ... 

^If. who has had a great deal of experience m &&' 
penmanship. I have been in the railroad busi- 
ness for the past eight years, and am gelling a 
salary of |8oo per annum, which I do not con- 
sider very much, especially after being in the 
business ns long as that. Now. what I want to 
know is this: Can I. or not. do belter, provided 
I give up this business, and place myself under a 
firsHlass teacher of penmanship and lake 
thorough ttacher's eourse? I love pe '' 

and never get tired of it, provided I 
time to work at it in a painstaking way, which is 
out of the <iuestion at present. I would prefer 
10 make a specialty of penmanship, but of course 
would take up some other commercial branch, 
say hook-keeping, as 1 understand that, and 
would pay particular attention to business cor- 
respondence, etc If 1 were a single man I 
would nut bother you with this letter, but would 
have tried il long ago ; as I am not, I prefer to 
have the advice of one who knows by long ex- 
perience. I trust, therefore, that in considera- 
i.on of the many letters I have wrillcn in reply 
to in<|uiries concerning the ' Compendium,' you 
will grant me a reply, giving your candid opinion 
on the subject." 

'■ Tromising not to trouble you any more with 
such long and uninteresting letters, 

" I am, very respectfully yours, 

pmJium of Forms, the same as that m your 
Compendium?"— H. B. S., Canton, Mo. 



"Please inform me whether the later work, 

Bryant & Stratton's Book-keeping, counting 

me as that dated 1S63 ; 

e respects ?" — B. Wooi>. 


We do not know ; there are many in 
each country equally good. 4- Yes ; 
the oblique is the best pen holder for 
elegant writing yet made, but great care 
should always be taken to so adjust the 
pen that the point will be on an exact 
ship iine with the centre of the stick. 


" I. Do you think I can become a good writer 

from this style ? 2, Will short hand spoil my 

writing? Will il affect my spelling ?"—S. S. S-, 

Passaic, N. J. 

Yes ; you ought to make a first class 
writer. We do not know that short 
hand interferes much with " long hand," 
though the spelling is likely to become 
sadly demoralized. 

It is an entirely different 
quite another plan. 

i by your paper thai there is a pen holde 

$5.50. Our adv 
you are. Your salary in time 
advanced, no doubt. Eight years' ex- 
perience in a business ought to be worth 
as much to you as a new occupation of 
which you as yet know nothing. " Let 
well enough alone." 

" I have some trouble in holding my pen cor- 
reclly. My Hltle finger, instead of folding under 
the hand with the other, projects, .so that iny 
hand is supported entirely by thaL If lliat 
makes any material difference, will you please 
let mc know ? Would llie orlhodaclylic pen 
holder remedy this ?"— A. F. G., New Orleans, 

Tile little finger should " fold under 
the hand" with the other, but it is im- 
material whether the nails of both rest 
on the paper or not. We think, how- 
ever, you can easily overcome this ten- 
dency. The orthodactylic pen holder 
would be of service. 

for beginners, which is intended to form a cor- 
rect habit of pen holding ; also, an oblicjue pen 
holder for business men, which keeps the pen 
squarely on the points. If in reality they 
remain where ! w''-"^' '^ Maimed for them, I want the lalli 

■11 1 j for my own use, and the other for my boy."- 
' J. E. Pond. Jr.. Norlh Alllcboro. Mass. 

The pen holders are just as repre- 
sented. The oblique are now used by 
every penman of note in the United 
States. This is the best possible evi- 
dence that nothing in the pen holder 
line equals them. 

"A parly here tells us that the 'Compen- 
dium Steel Pens' were once the Spencerian, but 
have since been changed to Compendium pens ?" 
— N. R., Little Rock. Ark. 

Our "Compendium Steel Pens" have 
never been known as the Spencerian. 
They arc an entirely different article. 

"I find Ihal you give room in the Gazettk 
for all to express their views, and ask for in- 
formation. So, I thought I would write up my 
case and see what you thought of it. Am 
eighteen years old, and have a very strong desire 
to write well, like some of the penmanship you 
publish in the paper, but am left handed. I have 
tried holding the pen in the ordinary manner, 
but can't do anything well that way ; the shades 
all come wrong, unless I use the oblique holder. 
Which position do you think I had better 
adopt?"— D. S. Beihune, Snyder. Aik. 

You seem to make progress as it is. 
Hold the pen as seems easiest ; and if 
the oblique pen holder improves your 
writing, why not use it altogether ? 

" Is there such an article to be had of your 
adveriisers as while ink. to be used with black 
paper? I have seen a good many specimens 
done with it."— W. O. H.. Alpine, Ga. 

Write to any one of our penmen ad- 


" My object in writing you this letter is this : 
I am just starting out in life, and would like a 
lillle advice. Am very fond of penmanship, but 
am undecided whether or not to follow thai pro- 
fession, providing I could make a good writer. 
What would you advise? Would it pay mc 
financially ?"— Chas A. C, Chicago. 

A good handwriting always pays 
financially, but it is not necessary in every 
case to follow teaching penmanship, or 
card writing, or engrossing, to get the 
money out of it. Our advice would be 
to retain your present situation, if you 
have a good one, as we judge you have, 
and keep up your improvement. It will 
be as well appreciated in a business 
house in a city like Chicago, as in a 
country writing school. 


mber of persons ha 

•■ If I should get up a club for you, 
have to send the whole fifteen nami 
time to gel the Compmiiiiim of Fori 
C. B.. Lc Koy. Kans. 

No ; you may send the n; 
as you get them, and whe 
nttinber have been entered or 
we will forward the premium. 



" Is it best to use one kind of pen only, or is 

it well to use a gold pen if one likes it, and 

can write rapidly and well with it?"— Maupe 

J. M., Brooklyn. 

If you can find a good steel pen that 
you like, and that is suited to your style 
of writing, it will be best to adopt it for 
use altogether. Don't make frequent 
changes of pens, or use a gold pen at 
all. There has been no such perfectly 
finished pens made as those recently put 
up for the use of good writers, and there 
is no excuse for anyone to continue the 
use of those of inferior quality. 


' I wish t 


ask you whether, at thirty-five, i 

our books 

ivould I THE FINGERS. 

" Do you think it is absolutely necessary 
hold the fingers straight ? I know some beauii 
ful writers that cramp their fingers. If I hold 
my fingers straight, I can'l write al all." — Geo. 
C. I'KCK. Brooklyn, K. D., N. Y. 

The fingers should never be rigidly 

straight, but curved, naturally. Hold 

the pen as easily as possible ; the main 

thing to keep in mind is, that the hand 

•Is Ihe Bryant of the Columbus Business I rests upon the nails of the last two fin- 

Collcgc any relation to the original Bryant, of , gers — not upon the side of the hand; 

Bryant \ Slrailon?"— I). McL., Daylon, Ghio. and that the wrist must not touch the 

The principal of the commercial paper or table. 

school at Columbus, Ohio, is E. K. 

Bryan, not Uryant. 


" Please 
India ink, .1 
E. Bowma; 


•X me know where t can get some 
I want some very much."— George 
MonticcUo, Piatt Co., Illinois. 

•Can 1 

I writing 01 



uscular movemenl wher 
.1 a sloping wiiling desk ? 1 caimoi 
arm freely. Do you recommend thi: 
desk?"— L H. N.. Bridgeport, Conn 

unless the desk is sloped verj 

is possible for a man to change his handwriting ? 
I am very much rntcrested in good penmanship, 
and as my position here, of business correspond- 
ent, gives me almost constant work with the 
pen, it occurred to me thai, by practicing even- 
ings, say two hours each, for the next six months, 
I might greatly improve my handwriting. My 
great desire is to write rapidly and well — elegant, 
if possible— but with ihe utmost legibility. My 
principal trouble consists in having a sort oi jerky 
motion of the arm. I do not use the fingers at 
all, except to hold the pen. I asked one of the 
Bryant & Stralton teachers in regard to it, and 
he said that writing by principles had nothing 
to do with it ; that principles amounted to noth- 
ing in actual practice ! I shall be greatly pleased 
to have a reply." — S. H., Goshen, Ind, 

Thirty-five is not too old to effect a 
change in your handwriting. What 
you seem to need most is the correcting 
of the forms of your letters, and a more 
deliberate movement in writing, so as to 
do away with the "jerky motion." Two 
hours' practice each day ought to work 
a decided change. Principles are of 
use in getting the forms of letters ; they 
amount to but little in actual practice. 
Your movement is correct, with the ex- 
ception named ; by proper practice you 
should make a superior writer. 


" Will you please inform me if there is a book 
published on modern penmen and penmanship, 
and where it maybe purchased?" — L. E, Eddv, 
Hammond, Mich. 

The new book, " Compendium of 
Forms," published by Fairbanks, Pal- 
mer & Co., will, no doubt, serve your 
purpose. In addition to a full course 
in penmanship, the subject of conduct- 
ing writing schools is fully discussed, 
and complete instructions given for each 
lesson ; there are, also, portraits and 
sketches of the founders of our present 
systems of handwriting. 

A large ! 
us, during the past month, spe 
their autographs, showing improvement 
in their handwriting from using our 
Compendium of Penmanship. Some of 
these signatures are very beautiful ; 
while others are only ordinary, and a 
few positively bad. Most of these par- 
11 write everything well except 
their names. A signature should be 
plain and neat, not cut up with flour- 
ishes. The following is a list of those 
who send the best : 

James C. McEwen, 44 East Twenty-third 
Street, New York. 

A. J. Beal, Ash Hill, Mo. 

* Robert U. Tate, Wilmington, N. C. 
J. Luther Norton, Glenn's Valley, Marion Co., 

C, E. Jeffery, Great Falls, N. H. 
Fred. P. Miller, Hermitage, Pa. 

* Johnson Carrothers, Cassvile, Harrison Co., 

Gertie E. Jackson. New Albany, Ind. 
I. M. Saunders, Smith Grove. N. C. 
*W. Robinson. Washago, Simcoe Co , Onl. 
«A. G. Ward, Union Grove, Iowa. 
S. A. Wray, Patterson's Store, N. C. 
*W. H. Gibbs, Agricultural College, Miss. 

* Marion M. Lash, Mansfield, Ohio. 

* W. E. McCredie, Chippewa, Onl. 
W. White, Crystal Springs, Miss. 

* II. M. Cowper, Byng Inlet, Ont. 
Lewis E. Eddy, Hammond, Mich. 

* A. W. Johnson, Huntsville, Texas. 
Charies H. Kimmig, 935 Seargenl Street, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

* W. H. Jackson, Iowa City, Iowa. 

* R. S. Beets, Nettle Carrier, Tenn. 
*W. R. Brown. Charlotte, Tenn. 
Wm. J. Frees, Paris, Texas. 
*J. D. Kevins, Kingston. Kansas. 
*R. M. Peck. Elstvorlh, Maine. 
*A. L. Martin, West Lebanon, Ohio, 
♦J. W. Allison, Dunbar, Ont. 
F. O. Frost. Marionvillc, Onondaga Co., 

N. Y. 

A. R. James, Chariton, Iowa. 
I E Holden, Sherborn, Mass. 
*Jo. D.vuison,, X. Y. 

J. A. 


kur.U. Clarkc 

k. L. Coons. Canton. . 

Michael Graney, Aurelius Station, N. Y. 
*H. W. Hubbard, Middletown, Conn. 

* H. H. I'ritchett. Louisa C. H., Va. 
C. W. Johnson, Norwood, Mich. 

11. W. Eari, Ludlow, Vt. 

* F. C. Gorton, New London, Conn. 
W. H. Jones, China, Maine. 

C. S. Coney, Decatur, Michigan. 



A writer in the Cleveland Leader ad- 
vocates a uniform system of punctua- 
tion, and gives the reasons for so great 
a diversity of methods ; 

There arc several considerations bearing 
directly or indirectly upon this (|uestion : 

I. 'I'he various methods arising from different 
principles of punctuation, which, from their na- 
ture, must ever remain irreconcilable. I'romi- 
ncnt among these are the grammatical and those 
known as the oratorical — the open or long, and 
Ihc close or short methods of puncluaiion. 
Great confusion results from the prevalence of 
these conflicting views ; but the oratorical prin- 
ciple and grammatical principle, being especially 

;rious cause of diversity, 
e existing rules and remarks, and the 
nodes of applying them by authors on 
ion. These arc usually esteemed au- 
i-e, and therefore exert great influence. 
There arc discrepancies here quite vital in their 
efTects, and many of the conflicting views pre- 
«iling are traceable to this source. 

3. The supposed inferiority of punctuation, 
.s compared with other elementary branches re- 
quired in English composition. This impression 
1 prominent cause of indifference to a really 
portant matter. The iniiroalc relation of 
iicliialion to the laws which govern the con- 
uclion of language, renders it too essential a 
tor in literature to be thus lightly esteemed. 
%. The harmony of authors in reference to 
-eral examples, questionable in practical punc- 
iiion. These examples, although sustained 
by the rules given, are deemed so objectionable 
to be rejeclc<l by many intelligent men, and 
especially by those connected with the press. 
This also adds its quota to the confusion. 

ules given by authors pertinaciously 
adhered to by some writers, and applied only in 
by others. Whether this diversity arises 
1 defective rules, or from peculiarities of 
ers. the effect is fatal to uniformity. 

The voluminous and sometimes intricate 
heat ion of rules and remarks, involving 
slight shades of thought or modes of expression, 
ions are scarcely calculated to 
render the subject intelligible to all who should 
)e familiar with it, but rather serve to confuse. 

7. The dogmatic spirit exhibited by some in- 
clligcnt men who entertain decided views on 
the subject. This spirit induces an antagonism 
fatal to uniformity, because manifested by those 
who differ widely in their views. 

8 The prejudices resulting from education. 
These prejudices, acquired at institutions of 
learning or in the experiences of life, not only 
render many incapable of appreciating the value 
nf improvements in punctuation, but ificline 
ihem to resist any attempts at reformation. 

9. The prevailing ignorance of many respei 
ing punctuation. This ignorance is far from 
being confined to the uneducated in other 
branches. Numerous instances may be found in 
the halls of Congress, on the forum, on the 
bench, in the pulpit, and in the highest ranks of 

s of individuals 
ult of momentary impressions, when specific 
.es of punctuation arc presented. These 
:ssions often assume the importance of well 
isidered views, and when erroneous, are pecu. 
liarly calculated to produce confusion. 

The above reasons why we arc without a uni. 
form system of punctuation, are but a few of 
the many that might be given ; but these are 
enough to indicate the character of the obstacles 
in the way of such a system. 

In the treatment of the general subject of punc- 
tuation, as a matter of convenience, the terms 
"grammatical principle" and "oratorical prin- 
ciple" will be employed. The grammatical and 
rhetorical views of punctuation so closely har- 
■: as to require but the one term to express 
For the present, our attention will be 
cd to the first two causes of diversity. 

Card Writing. 

Jersey Citv, May i, iSS:. 
To the Editor of the Penman's Cautte : 

Mr. £. E. Crawford, of Romeo, Mich., ask; 
thiough you in the last issue, for information re 
specling canl writing, ihe materials and imple 

s necessary, 

ard writers to " step forward " and enlighten 
him, and the many like him, I venture to do so. 
In the first place, the person who attempts to 
rite cartls should have full command of his 
n, and be able lo write mpidly, that his work 
may be free from tremulous or ragged lines. The 
best card writers use the muscular or whole arm 
movement for the capitals, thereby making them 
smooth and sharp, not drawn out in school boy 
fashion, or "shaky," as a correspondent says in 
ii previous issue. Strict attention is given to 
placing the name exactly where it ought to be. 
in the middle of the card, leaving the same 
length of blank space at each end. Some drop 
the name a little lower down than half way from 
the top. If the writing is ever so good, and the 
above be disregarded, the card will not look 
"balanced," and wouldn't pass criticism even 
among the boys. 

Too much care cannot be taken in selecting 
good cards, pens and ink. The finer grades of 
cards " show up " the hair lines and shades to 
better advantage than the cheaper ones. They 
have generally a somewhat rough surface, and 
are much preferable on that account. The pen, 
after a shade on a smooth or " glazy " card, fre- 
quently takes up some of the sizing, and a thick 
line on the up stroke is the result. Elastic pens 
and the best black ink are of the utmost impor- 

Ladies' cards are a little broader than gentle- 
men's, and the penmanship is smaller and more 
delicate in shade. The shading on ihe capitals 
should all (.iccur on the main down stroke, and 
be of the same widtli as nearly as possible. If 
any other penman or card writer has further sug- 
gestions to make on this or any other subject 
that would prove interesting to the craft, I am 
sure the Ga/.ETTE will find room for him. 
Truly yours. 

L. Mauarasz, 

Defective Copy Boolis. 

The Canadian School Magazine 
views at some length a new series of 
copy books prepared by Beatty, and 
published by Adam, Miller & Co., of 
Toronto. We copy a portion, that our 
readers may see how outsiders judge a 
copy book system ;. we take no part in 
the discussion. Mr. Beatty has long 
been considered not only one of the 
best penmen in the Dominion, but a 
teacher of first-class ability ; and opin- 
ions may differ in this, as in many 
another matter : 

This series of copy books is professedly based 
upon that of Paysoii, Duuton & Scrlbner, but is 
in every respect vastly inferior to it. The late 
Mr. Hugh McKay, probably the best penman 
ever Canada produced, made systems of pen- 
manship a special study, and he thus character- 
ises this series of copy books: "This system 
(Beatty 's) is probably the worst series of copy 
books in use in Canada to-day (1878); it is made 
up of copies from several systems, and its eclec- 
tic character makes it impossible to reconcile the 
style of writing presented with the principles 

In copy book No. i, the writing is all done by 
tracing upon light red letters ; the attempt to 
cover the red letters with the tracing makes the 
child's efforts at writing anything but encourag- 
ing. All the letters are supposed to be taught 
in this book, but they are introduced without 
any apparent method \ for example, w precedes 
H, of which it is a modification ; c, which is made 
strongly like an e, comes before o ; the word 
"ji'r" is given, but two copies, afterwards (the 
books are not even paged) s is taught, and in the 
page following that, the pupil is shown how to 

In good copy books exercises are given upon 
the letters after they have been taught, but in 
these H, JT, », tn, e, e, 0, and a are taught in con- 
secutive copies without any intervening exer- 

In No. 2, exercises are supposed to be given 
upon all the letters taught in No. i, but v, w, 
and X are omitted, and the lellcry is written 
throughout without the dot. 

In No. 4, the most important book of the 
series, .ns the majority of pupils leave school at 
this stage, /, h,j\ 1/, t, «', x and : do not occur. 

In No. 5./. ■'. -r, and ^ are left out. 

In No. 6, ; and 1 are not found. 

In No. 7,f, J. and r, and in No. 8, ^ and : 
and their capitals are omitted. 

No. g is still more defective, it docs not con- 
tain X-,/and (/, and the capitals ^. I/, ,Vand 2. 

,/, X and : and the capitals O, P, Q, P, U. X 
and Zare not found in Nos. 10 and 11 ; why 
should J and / be made so near alike ? 

No. 8 contains no fewer than four different 
styles of writing. In No. 9 we have one style 
of writing on the first page, and a totally differ- 
ent style in the following page. This is cer- 
tainly a cheap way of compiling copy books, and 
one that would not commend itself to every pub- 
lishing firm. They are made simply to sell — not 
to benefit the pupils using them. The shading 
of capital letters cannot be made if the directions 
for holding the pen are observed ; the heaviest 
part of the shading is on the horizontal stroke. 

The commercial forms given in the more ad- 
vanced books do not come in any order, nor are 
they all written in the same style of penmanship. 
The paper, loo is unfit for copy books ; and the 
engraving is poorly done compared with that of 
other Canadian copybooks available for schools. 

The Fable of ttie Siiinrt Man. 

There was once a very smart man, and 
he met a man who was not smart, and 
said to him : "See here, I am an awful 
smart man. I know everything and can 
do anything ; yet my pocket, my purse, 
and my stomach are a trinity of empti- 
ness—three in one, and I'm the one ; 
while you, who are not smart, go clothed 
in purple and fine linen, and have your 
ribs regularly adiposed. Now tell me, 
why is this ?" And the man who was 
not smart answered and said that he 
did not know, but he supposed it must 
be because the market was overstocked 
with smart men. 

For Fifteen New Subscribers sent 
us BY A Subscriber. 


Compendium OF Forms: 

Kducational, Social, Lrgal and Commercial. 

Embracing a complete Self- Teaching Course 

in Penmanship and Book-keeping, and 

Aid to English Composition. 

Including Orthography, Capital Letters, Punc- 
tuation, Composition, Elocution, Oratory, Rhet- 
oric, Letter Writing in alt its Forms, the Laws 
and By-Laws of Social Etiquette, Rusiness, Law 
and Commercial Forms, Complete Dictionary of 
Legal and Commercial Terms, Synonyms, Abbre- 
viations, Foreign Phrases, Poetry, etc. 

Also, a Manual of Agriculture and Mechanics, 
with a Complete Guide to Parliamentary Prac- 
tice, Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies. 
Organization and Conduct of Meetings, etc. ; 
Game Laws of United States and Provinces ; 
also, the following Tables for Ready Reference : 

Financial HiUory of the U„iU<l Stales. 

Military Hittory 

Naval History 

Glante at Our Foreign Trade. 

ConijiUte History o/each Stale nmt Territory, 

Population 0/ States. Territories and Prineifial Cities 0/ 

U. S/or 1S70 and 1890. 
Educational and Keligtous Tailes, 
Metric System of Weiglas and Measures. 

Rnpid Pcnrannsliip. 

Be energetic ; look and act with alac- 
rity ; take an interest in your employer's 
success ; work as though the business 
was your own, and let your employer 
know that he may place absolute reli- 
ance on your word and on your act. 
Be mindful ; have your mind on your 
business, because it is that which is go- 
ing to help you, not those outside at- 
tractions which some of the " boys " are 
thinking about. Take a pleasure in 
your work ; do not go about it in a list- 
less, formal manner, but with alacrity 
and cheerfulness, and remember that 
while working thus for others, you are 
laying the foundation of your own suc- 
cess in life. 

Woi'tli Reiueiiibering. 

A rapid penman can write thirty words 
in a minute. To do this he must draw 
his pen through the space of a rod, six- 
teen and a half feet. In forty minutes 
his pen travels a furlong. We make, on 
an average, sixteen curves or turns of 
the pen in writing each word. Writing 
thirty words in a minute, we must make 
480 to each minute ; in an hour, 28,800 ; 
in a day of only five hours, 144,000 ; in 
a year of 300 days, 43,200,000. The 
man who made 1,000,000 strokes with 
his pen was not at all remarkable. 
Many men, newspaper writers, for in- 
stance, made 4,000,000. Here we have, 
in the aggregate, a mark of 300 miles 
long to be traced on paper by such a 

One Large, Elegantly Illusthated IJuarto Volume, 



[ts pnges nrc so well slocked with useriil knowlcdee, dim 
ruw will hesitate lo give it the second pl.-icc. at least, among 
\\\Kyo\\\m<ss.\vy AmX'j VAC— BasloH Daily Herald. 

One of the most useful boohs for rererencc, or study, re- 
cently issued, is undoubtedly " Gaskell's Compendium of 
Forms."— Jorfo« Courier. 
It contains a vast amount of valuable InformaLon. 

John D. Long, G<n..o/Mass. 
It surpnsscji Any book of tlie kind \ have ever seen ; \s a 
u-omplete library in itkelf. 

Nait Hbao, 
Gov. o/Ne^o Hampshire. 
\ have examined your " Gaskell'b Compendium of Forms" 
with much interest and satisfaction ; while the book is of 

will derive profit by a 

sal of it 

t» needed want, and will htnefit all w 

Hon. Marcus L. Wamd, 

Ex-Gov.e/Hru, Jersey 

ich valuable information. 

1 1 b one of tlie mat useful books in my library. It cott- 
lains a world of information carefully arranged, claimed 

siudc'nt^.^ndXuine^ and professional men. 

J. E. Sout-K. /'rineital, 
Bryant & Stration Huiiness College, Philadelphia, Pfl. 

Is decidedly the best nnd only complete work of the kind 
W. H. Sadlhu. Principal. 
Bryant, Stratum & Sadler College. Baltimore. Md. 

I have examined it carefully, and with great interest to 
myself. Would not part with it for ten times its cost. 
Should find its way into every home. 

H. E. HlUUAHD, Principal. & SlraUtin Commcrciiil School, Boston. 




lub of /l/tftm > 

^* CdnfrEN- 

liTuM™')? l^AWS^A^n^Fi 

rA. we will J 

ILL'S r~'' 

picie eye [of 

u; the 

Kfiil tnrormaiion iit ihcM I 

uc full pax 
wriiing. >r 

every nne who wriheo to nvail himMlfor the be<^t )iclp« ( 
tucceM In life. 
The prfec of ihK (Httion of the book U $S.SO. 


. (ts.00 ifo.oo III 




i.nny of 

command the bctt ponJble .irllcic fit the lowoi price. 

Penmen and othen, who arc lurins other makes and are 
not (|iiite viliincd with them, will certainly find " Caskkll's 
CoMcRNDiUM Pkn " a superior arllcle. We idinll be nbd 
to mail » trinl liov of n (luorter grow, prepaid, to any one, 
for /cr/^ r^iih— pot tnse ititmps or currency. And il you 
are not mort Iham fUattd vifh thtm. tend them hack and 
wc will return the money. 

prctent wc are i.-wed to our utmoii to Ripply it promptly 
in luch quantities a> agenU want it So far. wc have never 

can always fill any ordinary order ihe nme day. 

Asenu ihrouEhout the cotintry report aii incrcasng 
demand for It in communities where the people have bad 

Omr huMjrfd anJJS/ly tMautand cofiet hy\c now been 
wld. The revoed edition, now residy, with new omament.-il 
pieces, alphabets, and other change*, is itlll better than any 

Before i88t has left u^ we shall have reached fork a >...1 
of over Aw Hnndrtd thoutand. By that Ume ourw.i^ 
will be>*/ btgun. 

The Compendium embodies the only true idea of .> 
^*/*ti lelf-teaching s>-sicni : and no expense will be » 
in keeping ii just where it u — at the head of all the sy 
of the world. 

Alling's Superior Writing Inks. 


Tcafliers and SI 



lake i' 

YOUR NAME, written with Snow White Ink. on 
■'iriKKN Gilt Boruerbi> Cards, different tints-blue, 
.rowii. black and red— for ao els. : twenty-five for 35 cW. 

»hitc m\. Orders filled .-u received- 
Address, R. R. BEAM. Cblina, Ohio. 






e ord 



^Httt» Cards. 




















CvDKv one sending i» .-knotber tubsci 

ill receive a copy of Mr. Lilley'snew I 

/or Autogmfh and Writing Albumsi 

lavc ordered 3 supply of l.OOO o 

plcIc Alphabets, 3( 
No, ti^EucKStrc 

beautifully written on one do/en 
t Shading Pen, for iic. Samples, 
en of Itnurishing. 30c. Two corn- 
set ofnpid Butincs Capitals, lac. 




By A, H. EATON, 






lH/.Tf.WORP, W.l 

riiiiliiii you will he pleaded with ihem, 

.,-,- „.i ,.!u.,lU.n.yany t^tnmaHintht U. I 

I h u. A..1 iincvi line of Bevel Kdw Card 

-n ,,1^., ,.> „,> ,pc..i:>l order, m New York ; 

caches Book-keeping, Pcnmiinship nnd Ariibmeiic ; cx- 
lericnccd. thirty years old, wants a position in a school. 
tcsiiinoiiiuU from every school engaged in. 
Address. B. L., care Jkkshv Cltv Business Collbgk, 

Jersey City. N.J. 
[This \s. a good chance to get a fir^t class man.— Euitor 




Send 25 cents for Full Line of Samples. 

Also a full line of i'enman's and Tf.ichcrs' Sup- 
plies, Pens, Inks, I'en-holders, Bristol 
Board, Etc., Etc. 
SfnJ for Price List. 


Aait\g*» Ootd, Nil 


wTiitc Ink, K ou"M bottle, by express 
Cold or Silver Ink, M o»nct DOItte. b> 

Mercantile Ink, ''""*'"" 

Assorted Colore, 1 oz. boilte, per boltt< 

VENMAyS INK CAIilXBT, No. t.—PHee, $2. 

ConLiins the following Inks ; 1 oi^ bottle each of Japan, 
Carmine. Blue, Violet, Green. Contrast Carmine. :3carlel. 
Mercantile, Deep Black. 

Three quarter ounce bottle White Ink, and Ji ounce 
bottle of both Gold and Silver Inks. 

I Ji ' 

SpecU.I s,.n.. ,., (,/,„M.-To Card Writers, 

Studeni ...-h.p.desirousof extending 

ihesalc> ■ above inks will be fur- 

nishedm , ■.:i'Mffrf;»r/f«, affording to 

plcs"of thccolore''of Inli.'^cii-ds MKUted'w'ith^japfn^nd 
Ornamental Inks. Price List, with "Special Kates to 
Agents," Circulars, etc.. will be sent. Addres, 

■. N. ■ 

. B.— No i 


I Business Collbch, 

5/.- •■ The Japan. Mercantile and Deep Black Inl 
ago. 1 have given them a thorough tri 

:din place:, wl 
A. W. SMITK, Principal Business Colli 

Office op Supt. of Writing \_ 

iiid th 
sh.-ill adopt the different kinds in our colU 



diiy a 

rhd^ld be weko'Ili^b**/aTl*Mrd''wriicre"ird "jTrof^ona^ 
'^'' "^"^^''^gTa. SWAVZE,Supt. 
Carter's Commbrciai. College, 


Mr. Fred. D. Allini 

JLD, Mass., AVw. 

ur Inks with Ereai 

hat flow freety, a 

distinctly at once the finest lines by 

r daylight, wc prefer your Deep Bl.ick. or Japan and 
ntilc Inks mixed. Your F-incy Inks are the finest 

G. J. AMIDON.Tcacherof Penmanship. 



tnt7\ redpe'^fM m^ing''^hc'Tr/iJM«/ 
?/«f*/«*u«d by the leading penmen of 

but a few cents to make a gallon; would 
where w>iere people are at 111 parliiulw m 

the colors named in margin, only ten eemt 
Seventeen different kinds, including the 
BriUiant BUtk Ink. $1. 

One man says : " I received your ink re- 
cipe, and have made up several lots ol the 
ink. It is a A7-///m» Alack, the best ink 
1 ever saw. My boys have sold the mk 

forty dclLiri' worth, to neighbore ml 

a real ink m.-in now offered to the public' 
J. S. GASKBIiL, Ink Manufacturer, 


i OF I 

E(liicntioiinl,!iociiil, Irgnl niiil rummrrrial. 

NB L/ 

RGB. El 

— ■- 





urn contains 





*HN 1'i.ouni 





..(■ -,:, , 

.u,d Capital 


with Ri 

es .-iM'l 1 ' 

1 i 

.1^i^eis Pen- 





1 \ 

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d with 

welve f„l! , 



PLites. and 




ng Course, E.-uy Methods. 


I the mo 

St approved 


ms of DoiiUI 

nitd Single 

try, a 

s used 

n Stock and 


tnership, in 

obbing, Im- 


nd oihe 







laining Rules 


Words and Der 

valions. Phon 

ology, Capi- 


tuaUon. Acc< 


Common Er 

rois of Lan- 

loMPOSiTiON. Elocution anw Oratorv.— Giving ptac- 
il suggestions as to Style, Breathing. Qu.ilities of Voice, 
Ltculation, Key, Variation. Force, Rate. Delivery, Ges- 
B and the Passions. Subjects for ^utys, for Compos!- 
IS, for Conference, for Dbpututions, Disciusions, Delib- 

Letlers, including Head- 
d Abuse of Titles, Style 

-Including Merc 

itlers. Letters of Favc 
!tic Letters. Letters t 
;>anying Gifts, etc. 
iCB AMD Forms.— Giv: 

IJiving Rul 
itegrity, Di 
ielf-Hclp. Good Mam 

=. Qualil 

i. Spiri 

CoMMBKCiAL Forms.— History of Banking and Bank 
Clearance Houses, Forms of Notes, Checks, Drafts, Simple 
and Compound Interest Tables, Interest and Usury Uws 
of each State, and Statute of LimiL-itions, Banking and 
Equation Tables, a Complete Glossary of Leg.1l .ind Com- 
mercial Terms. Bills of Exch.ingc, Due Bills. Orders. 

Laws and Forms of Business. — Business Law in Gen- 
eral, The Law and Forms of Agreements and Contracts, 
Bre.ichofContract, Agency, Attorneys, Apprentices, Arbi- 
tration, Assignments, Bonds, Bills of S.ile, Chattel Mort- 
gages. Common Carrier. Deeds, Abstract ot the Laws of 
the several Suies governing Deeds. Guaranty, Landlord 
and Tenant, Leases, Married Women, with abstract of all 
Slug Laws. Mortgages, Partnership. Patents, Fire. Marine 
and Life Insurance, The Right of Suffrage, Aliens, The In- 

lOf JUJ 

e of 

be Peace, I'rade Marks, ExempU'ons 

from Forced Sale, 

and Collection of Debts, a Complete A 

>stract of the Uws 

of each State and of Canada. 

bdiricgislativc Government.' Niinil^ 

housands of Facts. 

the Poeu of the Old and New World. 

choice Miectlon of 

7 of this paper. Bound 



Address. Wm. B. Nvb, 

Columbia College, 

New York Cif 


c agents of good 


G. A. Gaskell, Publisher. 

NEW YORK, JULY. 1881. 

Vol. III-No, 5- 

S. S. riickanl. 

[■^-.specting his claims to distinction, 
r indeed to extended notice in a pen- 
I n's paper, as a representative /(-//wa;/, 
If Packard is very modest. The only 
LiiiiKmship he has, as yet, given to the 
<frl<! through the engraver may be 
iiimi in a few of the pages of " Wil- 
1 wi- \: Packard's Gems" and " Pack- 
I ii'^ Key to Business Training," a 
firk prepared expressly for the use 
f commercial teachers. These speci- 
lens are reproduced in fac-simiU, and 
i"\\ a plain, liandsome, flowing style 
'i indwriting, which, if not copied by 
teachers, has been complimented 
highly by our best business men. 
he Packard hand is a peculiar one. 
: is small and compact, and very legi- 
Ic — just such a style as will light up a 
'mpositor's phiz, and make a merchant 
iMiid of his book-keeper. It has charac- 
I in it ; and it tells its story so plainly 
Kit ■' he who runs may read." 
Mr, Packard is widely known through- 
ii the country as one of the original 
' M ! dcrs of the modern commercial 
llc-c. He was born at Cummington, 
I I >,, in 1826, but his family removed 
I I he West soon afterward. He grew 
I' with such advantages as country 
'\s of that day enjoyed — the district 
tii>i)l and academy, the writing school, 
I I the old time commercial college. 
I< taught penmanship ; became a 
M in Bartlett's Commercial Col- 
't Cincinnati; afterward conducted 
Lducational monthly and taught 
hiiol for two years, at Adrian, Mich. ; 
1 [ii from there to Lockport, N. Y., 
In FL- he was connected with the Union 
liDiil of that city another two years; 
I. lilished a newspaper at Tonawanda, 
:. v., and finally identified himself with 
ryant & Stratton in establishing their 
ii.iin of business colleges. He was one 
I the first principals of the Buffalo 
I, and established the Albany and 
luo " links." He removed to New 
lU City in 1858, and established the 
ismution of which he is now the head. 
Ll is the author of the "Bryant & 
tratEon Book-keeping " series, and 
I'ackard's Comjilete Course" — works 
i.ti need no introduction from us. 
he sale of these books has been enor- 
I'Mis. and they are the recognized 
iiihorityon this branch of education 
1 nearly every commercial school and 
Ih gc in this country and Canada, and 
- "ur leading business men. He also 
hud. in New York City, a commer- 
u)l magazine, entitled "The American 
lerchant," which was published by 
;r\ant & Stratton, and was the editor 
nd publisher of Packard's Monthly, a 

vigorous publication, which will long 
live in the memory of its readers as a 
unique contribution to journalism. 

Mr. Packard is now fifty-five years 
old. For twenty-three years he has 
conducted the New York Business Col- 
lege. No commercial teacher has done 
more to advance the cause of business 
education, by the introduction of the 
best facilities and improvements in his 
school, and by co-operation with others 
in securing the same advantages for 
them ; and it is to him that many of our 
present methods are due. 

there was no lack of " professional itin- 
erants " in most parts of the country ; 
that there was, in fact, hardly a school 
district in any of the Northern States 
that could not boast of at least one writ- 
ing school and one singing school dur- 
ing the winter season ; but both writing 
school and singing school were project- 
ed on the short course plan, covering 
from ten to fifteen lessons, and each 
successive " professor " was sure to have 
a style and method differing from those 


Writing and Writing Masters of the 
Olden Time. 

To thi Editor of the Penman's Gazette, 

Sir : I have said that at the time of 
my connection with Bartlett's College, 
in 1848, there were few, if any, perma- 
nent writing schools in the country. Of 
course, it must be understood that I am 
simply following my own recollections, 
having no other data from which to draw 
my "reminiscences." I am aware that 

of his predecessors ; so that the princi- 
pal business of every new session was to 
unlearn the teachings of the previous 


As to writing, there was no acknowl- 
edged standard of style as represented 
in the Spencerian models of the present 
time. Each teacher had a style of his 
own, and embodied its highest ideal 
qualities in the " copies " which he care- 
fully wrote at the head of the page, and 
which it was the pupil's business to imi- 

tate as nearly as possible— the nearer he 
came to the copy, the nearer he ap- 
proached perfection. It may be that 
before this period, some aggressive pio- 
neer had chalked out on the blackboard 
the path which future teachers of the 
" art preservative " were to follow — and 
that even before Spencer's day, the an- 
alytic method of teaching form and mo- 
tion was in practice. I only know that 
it had never penetrated "our parts," 
and that if I had been told that writing 
could be taught from the blackboard 
alone, or that one could teach writing 
well without being able to write well, I 
should have waited a few hours to con- 
sider the matter before accepting the 


But when I saw Gundry's marks and 
heard his remarks, a new light dawned 
upon me ; for though greatly inferior 
to the practiced Spencerian teachers of 
to-day in blackboard delineations, he 
was able to present the groundwork o£ 
the system he taught, and to give his 
pupils something to think about as they 
worked. I soon saw that if I was to 
hold the respect and confidence of my 
pupils, I must either do perfect writing 
myself, and have them imitate it, or sug- 
gest an ideal perfection, and hold them 
toward its realization. Of course, the 
latter alternative was not only the safer 
one, but, in view of continuous work, the 
only one to follow. 


In my rubbing against itinerant writ- 
ing masters, I had picked up more or 
less of different styles of " Ornamental 
Penmanship ;" and owing to the great 
darkness that overspread the earth, as 
to what constituted ornamental pen- 
manship, I was permitted to put on a 
good many "frills," and to pose as in 
some sense a superior "artist" in this 
line. I had some idea of the form and 
proportion of letters— could make a tol- 
erable " fist" at German Text and Old 
English, and had acquired one style — 
and a very poor style — of ornamental 
flourishing ; and as no other artist hap- 
pened along who could lay me in the 
shade, I was quite content with my 
small achievements ; and particularly 
so, as my employer thought me a ge- 
nius, and did not hesitate to brag on my 

If I excelled in anything it was in 
imitating people's writing. I dislike to 
think what the consequences might have 
been had serious temptation overcome 
me to carry this accomplishment to the 
practical end so successfully practiced 
in these days. I contented myself, how- 


ever, with venting my proclivity on the 
harmless reproduction of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and imitating the 
signatures thereto. I honestly believe 
that when I had my hand in that 
sort of work, I could have written the 
autographs of John Hancock and Ste- 
phen Hopkins with my eyes shut, so 
perfectly, that the spirits of these wor- 
thies, if called upon, would have rapped 
their approbation on my table. I think, 
with a little practice, 1 could even have 
beat Philp or any other man in produc- 
ing the Garfield letter. But I discov- 
ered early in life that a reputation for 
this sort of work was not enviable, and 
I (juietly let my laurels fade— not an- 
ticii»ating what I now know so well, that 
with the withdrawal of my trump card 
would disappear all my claims to be 
reckoned among ornamental penmen. 

One day there happened along a 
gushing and pervasive individual from 
New York by the name of Knapp. He 
was gotten up regardless of conse- 
quences ; wore patent leather boots, a 
diamond ring and breast-pin, and the 
latest wrinkle in tailors' goods. His 
locks were hyperian and ambrosial, and 
clustered about his brow and neck in a 
way to win a maiden's heart. He an- 
nounced himself as an " author," and 
produced a copy of Knapp & Right- 
meycr's "Penman's Paradise" in evi- 
dence thereof. I had never before seen 
a live author, and I looked upon this 
man with genuine awe. He accepted my 
deference with that dignified complais- 
ance which only those who know their 
own worth can command, and was 
pleased to recognize in my work, just 
that quality of merit and of demerit 
which his own superior methods were 
born to direct and correct. He at once 
informed Mr. Bartlett that all I needed 
in order to stand at the head of my 
business were a few private lessons from 
him in offhand flourishing, and a copy 
of his book — all of which could be had 
for twenty-five dollars. 

I am sorry to say that although I took 
the private lessons (three in number) 
and the book, I have not now the slight- 
est idea of the merits of either. Possi- 
bly there are readers of the Gazettk 
who have seen and own that book. My 
own recollection of it is, that its chief 
merit was in a certain unendingness of 
the flourished forms, and that they con- 
sisted mainly of simple and compound 
curves, intermingled in corkscrew cir- 
cles and ovals, suitable for borders. 
There were also, as I now recall them, 
various designs of birds and animals, 
wrought out with the same inevitable 
unendingness, the skill consisting chiefly 
in not lifting the pen from the paper un- 
til the point of ending was deftly joined 
to the ijoint of beginning. I was so im- 
pressed with the necessity of this rule in 
offhand work, that when, many years 
after, I witnessed Williams' graceful 
effects in flourishing, they failed to elicit 
uiy full admiration from their lack of 

I noticed that Mr. Knapp did not 
essay, in my presence, any complete 
forms. He gave me what he styled the 
" elements," and assured me that when 
I became perfect in these, I would have 
no difficulty in producing exact copies 
of any of the engraved specimens in his 
book. As I never became perfect in 

got beyond 

the elements, I 

goldsmith's gems. 

Before I had fully established my in 
ability to shine as an ornamental pen- 
man, I was shown by a travelling agent 
a copy of "Goldsmith's Gems of Pen- 
manship." This was a work of more 
pretensions than even Knapp & Right- 
meyer's. It contained, as I now think of 
it, a system of plain writing, together 
with ornamental lettering and flourish- 
ing ; but what most attracted me was 
the author's portrait, which constituted 
the frontispiece. It is now more than 
thirty years since I saw the book, but if 
1 were an artist, I am sure I could re- 
produce the portrait to-day. I think it 
was the qualifying title, however, which 
arrested my attention, and caused me 
to fix the features so surely in mind, 
"Oliver Goldsmith, the American Pen- 
man." Here, at last, was the king of the 
writers ; the man who had already 
reached the goal to which all ambitious 
eyes in my profession were turned ! I 
wondered, in my innocence, how he was 
affected by his altitude, and if there 
could really be anything else on earth 
worth his craving. New York was, at 
that time, to me, terra incognita^ ultima 
thule, and various other Latin things. 
To be able to live in the great Ameri- 
can city, and to be the acknowledged 
"American Penman," formed a conjunc- 
tion of beatitudes that staggered my 
powers of appreciation, and I remember 
indulging in the fond hope of some day 
being able to visit the great city and 
feasting my eyes upon its representa- 

A few months after my experience 
with Knapp, we were honored with a 
call from Mr. D. F. Brown, a young 
man of gentlemanly address and modest 
pretensions. He was not only a credit- 
able penman, but an engraver as well, 
and he produced some excellent lines 
both of writing and engraving. I was 
much struck with his criticisms on writ- 
ing, and especially with his fine taste in 
lettering and shading, 

I renewed his acquaintance in Brook- 
lyn in 1853, where he had, at the time, 
the largest and most enthusiastic private 
writing class I had ever seen. Mr. Brown 
had the remarkable faculty of making 
his pupils believe in him, and I doubt 
if at that time there was a more effective 
or more popular teacher in the country. 
He informed me that he was at work on 
a specimen of ornamental writing to be 
displayed at the World's Fair the fol- 
lowing year, and which he confidently 
expected would take the premium. His 
expectations were fully met in the pro- 
duction of his famous " Lord's Prayer" 
pen drawing, which, in many respects, 
is unexcelled to this day. 


And now I come to Lusk. It was in 
the winter of 1849-50, that I first saw him. 
He was, as I have said, a medical stu- 
dent, and had come to Cincinnati for a 
course of lectures at the Eclectic Medi- 
cal College. He called on me shortly 
after his arrival in the city. He said 
he was a great lover of penmanship, and 
had made it a point to get into his 
possession all the good writing he 
could. He would even pick up scraps 
of ray careless work and ask permission 
to add them to his collection. 

usually carried under his arm a port- 
folio, which contained not only scraps 
of writing, but abstracts of the lectures 
he was attending. 

I at once saw that he was not only an 
admirer of good writing, but a most 
earnest student and a proficient. Among 
his gathered " specimens" were a large 
number from the pen of P. R. Spencer, 
and he informed me that he had been 
under Mr. Spencer's training. I doubt 
if at that time he had ever thought of 
teaching as a profession ; and if Mr. 
Spencer's word is to be taken, he had 
shown but one quality which in any way 
pointed to the possibility of such a 
course of life ; that quality was untiring, 
dogged persistency. 

I have frequently heard Mr. Spencer 
say, that of all unpromising clodhoppers 
with a pen, James W. Lusk was the 
worst he ever encountered. And also, 
that of all earnest, painstaking, unre- 
mitting, enthusiastic workers, he took 
the lead. He would work for hours 
and days at a single letter or a single 
line. He would rise hours before break- 
fast and buckle down to his work while 
others were sleeping, and would reluct- 

tly lay down his pen at night, in time 
to snatch the few hours of slumber that 
nature demanded. He had great vital- 
md endurance, and from boyhood 
up practiced the simplest habits of tem- 
perate living. At the time of my first 
laintance with Lusk he was probably 
about twenty-two years of age. He had 
not rounded out into that robust man- 
hood which, in his maturer years, gave 
such advantage in the class-room, 
and in his contact with men. 

When I next saw him in the summer 
of 1852, he had reached his full stature, 
and impressed me as being about the 
best specimen of ripened manhood I 
had ever seen. His eye was clear and 
intelligent, his voice rich and impres- 
sive, and his entire manner that of an 
accomplished man of the world. 

I was then teaching in the Lockport 
(N. Y.) Union School, having estab- 
lished therein a "Commercial Depart- 
ment. " Lusk had been itinerating 
through Northern Ohio, sometimes in 
connection with Mr. Spencer and some- 
times on his own hook, and he had at 
last discovered his calling. He was the 
same modest searcher after light I had 
found him in my first interview, and he 
had plenty of new specimens to show 

In return, I called his attention to 
some particularly free writing from the 
pen of " Professor Hurlbut," an eccen- 
tric teacher of the town. His system — 
which seemed to be original with himself 
— had been dubbed " The Boston Long 
Wharf," — why or by whom so dubbed 
I know not. It was remarkable for its 
lack of conventionality, and for the 
peculiar style of the capitals "J" and 
"I." These letters, under the more pre- 
cise teaching of other professors, were 
a kind of terror to the pupil, from the 
diflliculty of pointing the cap at the top, 
and twining it gracefully around the 
stem. It seems to have been the mis- 
sion of Professor Hurlbut to remove 
this stumbling block out of the path of 
aspiring youth in the "long-wharf J," 
the model of which was probably taken 
from a bent whip-stock with drooping 

That the reader may appreciate this 
great boon to the world, I give here the 
letters as practiced by orthodox teachers 
before Professor Hurlbut's innovation 
and the innovation itself : 

Old style standard 

"Boston Long Wharf" 

I well remember the effect on Lusk 
of this exhibition. He caught at it in- 
stantly — saw the practical beauty and 
advantage of the change, and acknowl- 
edged it with enthusiasm. His con- 
tinued and fixed approval found ex- 
pression in all his after teaching, and 
was finally crystallized in the revised 
Spencerian copies, published by Ivison 
& Phinney under Lusk's direction. 1 
doubt if Professor Hurlbut's fame ever 
extended beyond the " City of Locks," 
but it is pleasant to remember of him 
that he had many ardent admirers, most 
of whom had been made good penmen 
through his instruction. His theory of, 
teaching was to secure proper movement, 
and leave form to take care of itself. His 
basis of movement was the letter J, and 
he always insisted that just as soon as 
that letter could be made properly, all 
other letters and forms would come into 
line ; and the fact that lies greenest in my 
memory is, that some of the best business 
writers I have known were his pupils. 

Of his more recent history I know 
nothing, but as he was an old man thirty 
years ago, the probabilities are that he 
has long since gone to his reward. In 
speaking of the " Writing Masters of the 
Olden Time," as I have known them, 1 
could not leave him out ; and I am sure 
that the modern guild of penmen, who, 
with me, have luxuriated in the sweep- 
ing curves of the " long wharf" J, will 
not deem it amiss to stick down here a 
little peg of grateful recognition, and 
will join in a kindly remembrance of 
"Professor Hurlbut." 

lusk's personal appearance. 
Mr, Lusk was one of the few among 
the writing masters of the past, whose 
character and work is worthy of careful 
study, and I will therefore devote the 
rest of this paper to such thoughts and 
remembrances of him as I may be able 
to summon. The first thing to be said 
of him is, that his personal appearance 
was impressive. He was little, if any, 
under six feet in height, with a massive 
physique, a clear, speaking blue eye 
looking out from under projecting eye- 
brows, an attractive face altogether, 
and a voice of such quality that when 
he spoke everybody within hearing dis- 
tance was inclined to listen. His whole 
presence — physique, action and voice — 
was such as to command immediate at- 
tention, whether from an individual or 
from an assembly. And then his man- 
ner was so self-poised and impressive, 
that whatever he chose to do or say 
seemed to possess a significance and 
force, quite different from the words and 
actions of other men. He had, too, a 
remarkable faculty of individualizing, 
so that no matter how large was the 
class before him, every person was apt 
to feel himself singled out as the partic- 
ular object of attention. 



Nothing which he did or said seemed 
unimportant, but on the other hand the 
smallest suggestion seemed charged with 
the very issues of life. In scrutinizing 
the work of a class under instruction he 
would select some common error, and 
going to the blackboard, would demand 
instant attention ; and then with a look of 
painful solicitude, almost of incredulity, 
and a voice of great solemnity, would 
say : " You would hardly believe it, but 
after all I have said, there is one boy in 
j(his class who makes the last part of thi 
letter "d" in this way, (proc 
the board the common error,) instead 
way, which he knows to be correct. I 
Idn't like to expose this young man, 
but I shall have to do it, if he is not 
more careful." 

The natural result, of course, would 
1^ that the great majority of the class 
iaving made the error, each person felt 
amself particularly watched, and would 
B likely to watch himself thereafter. 
D fact, as I now think of it, I can imagine 
,0 severer punishment for a modest or 
.ervous student, than to be held up by 
<usk as an example of badness. There 
was such an unknown quantity of con- 
demnation in his quiet sarcasm. He 
ided me of the school examiner 
5irho inquired in such a portent- 
is manner of a boy, "Who made 
le world?" that the frightened little 
ihap could only exclaim : "/did, sir ; 
but I won't do it again ! " 

When Lusk paraded sins of commis- 
ion or omission, upon the black-board 
I otherwise, no aggressor dared deny 
he impeachment, and none failed to 
iromise — to himself at least — to do 
better for ail his future life. But there 
no kinder or more encouraging 
teacher than he, and no matter how 
badly a pupil did, or how much he de- 
spised his work, Lusk could always find 
something to commend and a strong 
lasis for hope, if not enthusiasm. Some- 
^mes he would exhibit his own first ef- 
forts, and would recount the almost 
hopeless struggles he had to encounter. 
He had a wonderful faculty of getting 
a pupil's confidence, and of knowing 
what was passing in his mind. He would 
ascertain the likes and dislikes of young 
men who came in his way, and manage 
in some way to serve them when they 
were least expecting it ; so that he 
seemed, in some important sense, to 
be mixed up with their happiest 
and holiest thoughts and inspirations. 
He was a good judge of character 
and fitness, and frequently had it in 
his power to put a young man in a good 

P place. In short, no worthy pupil ever 
failed to get from Lusk a full recogni- 
tion of his best points, and all such 
learned inevitably to look upon him as 
a sure reliance in case of trouble or of 
doubt. His contact with professional 

I friends was, in the largest sense, gener- 
ous and appreciative ; and withal he had 
a profitable faculty of getting quite as 
much as he gave in the way of sug- 
gestions. It was not an unusual thing 
for one to remember after a professional 
chat with Lusk, that somehow he had 
made an unnecessary display of his 
wares — had, in short, laid open the secret 
recesses of his thoughts, and yielded up 
the key to even his half-formed wishes 
and plans. It seemed so natural to tell 
this candid, earnest, sympathizing soul 

all you knew, and all you hoped to do 
in this life. 


Lusk was in no sense a pen artist, and 
he had the judgment and discretion to 
recognize the fact. He admired orna- 
mental work, and would have been glad 
if nature had endowed him with a gift 
to execute it. But nature had done 
nothing of the kind, and he did not 
quarrel with her for the slight. He 
gracefully yielded the palm in this re- 
spect to Williams and Tracy and the on 
coming Lyman Spencer, while he stuck 
to his specialty of plain, strong, practical 
'writing. His trained muscles were as 



ment as the piston of a Corliss engine ; 
and whether he handled a crayon, a 
good steel pen, a stub of a quill, or the 
burnt end of a match, he never made 
a false movement or a weak letter. A 
favorite conji of his was to walk up be- 
hind a student at work, and bending 
over him seize his pen, and write a word 
or two of- the copy. And he did it with 
such ease and certainty, and such evi- 
dence of reserved power, that no linger- 
ing doubt rested in the pupil's mind 
that the king of writers was at his el- 

Mr. Lusk was one of the original 
founders of the Bryant & Stratton 
chain of Business Colleges, having been 
a member of the old firm of " Bryant, 
Lusk & Stratton," who started the 
Cleveland institution in the spring of 
1854. He did not remain long in that 
connection, however, but removed to 
Buffalo, where, for a year or so, he had 
charge of writing in the public schools ; 
and upon publication of the Spencerian 
Copy Book, first by Phinney & Co., of 
Buffalo, and afterward by Ivison & 
Phinney, of New York, he became the 
active author and agent — having a one- 
fourth copyright interest — and remained 
in that relation until his death, in the 
fall of 1863. 


It was even at Mr. Lusk's suggestion 
that the name " Spencerian" was given 
to Mr. Spencer's system of writing ; as 
it was also due to him, in a great meas- 
ure, that the published copies were 
brought down to exact measurement as 
to form, spacing, etc. With all his re- 
liance upon blackboard illustration, 
analysis and methodical instruction in 
classes, he had great confidence in the 
inspiring effect of a well written copy — 
and a fresh one at that — and hence, he 
never considered a teacher's work com- 
plete until a written copy was placed 
before each student. No teacher, whom 
I have ever known, did so much writing 
for and in presence of his pupils, and 
none was surer to produce a class of 
uniformly correct writers. 

The world has known greater men 
than James W. Lusk, but few have lived 
who hold a greener spot in the memory 
of those who knew him for just what he 

*^^' S. S. Packard. 

T)ic Teacher and His Cunstitueucy. 


The public school teacher seems to 
move apart from men, in a little world 
by himself. All classes of professional 
men are isolated from their fellow citi- 

zens, to a certain extent, but he, more 
than those of other guilds, seems to be 
kept at arm's length. Yet the work of no 
class of professionals is more practically 
important or more nearly affects the in- 
terests of the homes in the community 
or the general welfare of the State, than 
the work of the class of persons who 
teach in our public schools. Their very 
state of isolation forces them to act ac- 
cording to their own judgment and on 
their own responsibility. The attitude 
of the general public, strangely enough, 
is that of ^waj/-hostility, while in the 
very nature of the relation between the 
general public and the guild of teachers, 
it should be of hearty friendliness, co- 
operation and helpfulness. The aver- 
age citizen is a critic of the public 
schools, if he prove to be no worse. 
He wields the sharp pointed pen as if 
he wished it were a tomahawk. There 
is frequent and abundant occasion for 
this. There are defects in the public 
school system and in its administration, 
for the simple, obvious reasons that the 
system itself is of human origin, and it 
must necessarily be applied by human 
means ! The system is devised for the 
mass of young people in the community, 
and like all systems devised for the 
masses, is inflexible and inadequate to 
meet the necessities of youth in excep- 
tional conditions. When the average 
citizen discovers that the system does 
not operate advantageously upon a cer- 
tain peculiar child — whether his or some 
other person's — he at once decides that 
the whole system is wrong and must be 
abolished. The same is true of this 
average citizen when he discovers that 
a certain teacher, out of scores or hun- 
dreds, is incompetent or unfit, or that 
all teachers are in some respects faulty, 
as the conduct of the critic, in this in- 
stance, proves him to be. Hence the 
attitude of yuasi-hostiWty on the part of 
the public toward the fraternity of teach- 
ers. Hence the isolation of teachers. 

It must be admitted that the public 
school system is inflexible, as at present 
organized. It is true that there is more 
or less incompetence on the part of 
teachers. What then ? Is not this true 
of all systems intended for general ap- 
plication and of all persons who attempt 
to administer them ? Yet is not the 
system immensely better than nothing ? 
I^ it not indispensable? Can the keen- 
est critic devise a substitute? We think 

Let the general public understand, 
once for all, that we have no more in- 
telligent, keen, bright, practical profes- 
sion in the community than the frater- 
nity of teachers ! Is the system un- 
adaptable to individual cases ? No one 
ascertains the fact quite so soon as the 
teacher himself. And no one is quite 
so ready to apply an exceptional remedy 
to an exceptional case as the teacher 
whose very proximity gives him even a 
better opportunity than is enjoyed by 
the child's parent to discover a need of 
it. It is true, also, that teachers as a 
class, are rather better informed of their 
own defects than the persons who crit- 
icise them. The general public rants 
about them, but the average teacher 
mourns over them and tries to remedy 
them. Hence these conventions of 
teachers, with annual, semi-annual, or 
quarterly sessions. By whom are teach- 
ers as a class, or the system itself more 
severely criticised, than in the discus- 

sions of these gatherings — or more intel- 
ligently or by more competent persons ? 
The critic who drops into these conven- 
tions finds himself a child. His im- 
mense knowledge in the way of defects 
and failures in teaching proves to be 
ignorance itself. 

The most important educational need 
of the times is that the teacher and his 
constituency should be brought to- 
gether, face to face, and brought into 
friendly, harmonious relations. The 
teacher needs the co-operation and aid, 
not simply of the parent and guardian, 
but of the general public. If he does his 
work well, to the best possible advan- 
tage, he does not serve the parent alone, 
but the entire community. One good, 
intelligent, honest, faithful, devoted 
teacher does more for the community 
in which he lives and for society, than a 
whole police force can do. He does 
more for the protection of the citizen 
and of his property from molestation or 
outrage. One public school teacher who 
is faithful in discharging his professional 
obligations, is doing more for the coun- 
try and its present and future welfare 
than a thousand professional politicians. 
Who does not know this? It follows, 
then, that the general public — the peo- 
ple of the community in mass — should 
be the fast friends and the earnest, 
industrious helpers of the fraternity of 
teachers. They should consult them — 
not /;7-sult them — associate with them, 
talk with them, ascertain their most 
pressing needs, and do what they can, 
individually and in a general way, to 
meet them. 

We must give our people some credit 
for doing something in the way of 
school visitation, but they should do 
more of it ; we must give them credit 
for kind feelings toward the schools, but 
it should find more frequent expression, 
The critic fires himself off and makes 
himself known, but the person who has 
no fault to find has nothing to say — and 
says it. We are well aware that the 
masses are proud of the public schools, 
but this pride and general interest are 
only manifested once a year, at com- 
mencements. These manifestations 
should be oftener made, to the encour- 
agement and strengthening of the teach- 
er, who has a right to criticise his critics 
for their shortcomings. Yet, with full 
justification and right, he is wiser than 
to do it. He usually suffers in silence 
and strives to attain a general state of 
personal and professional excellence 
that will place him beyond the reach of 
the critic's shafts. We may say that 
this is true of teachers as a class — not 
of all of them. There are persons in 
the profession who ought not to be in 
it. Teachers who are unfit for their 
work should be weeded out, and from 
year to year they leave the profession 
as their incompetency is discovered by 
superintendents, principals, and educa- 
tional boards. But those who stand the 
test of service should not only be well 
paid in current coin of the country, but 
should receive that which h of even more 
value, the hearty esteem, the friendly 
social recognition and earnest practical 
cooperation of their fellow citizens. 
Under these conditions, would not all 
teachers reach higher and better re- 
sults ? Could not all do their work 
better in these favoring circumstances? 
Who doubts that they would ? Let us 
encourage the good tuacher. 




■ change, he was a sensible 
nd deserves well of posterity. 

New York, July. 1881. 

(rubUealion Office, 17 to S3 Aw Slmel.} 

G. A. Gaskell, Proprietor. 

j4// UUers shouid be addressed as foUcws 

P. 0. Box 1534, 
New York Ciiy P. 

By keeping this in mitid much time will 
be saved. 

Teacltcrs* Examlnntions. 

In most parts of the country an appli- 
cant for a teacher's certificate must pass 
an examination in penmanship — not only 
write a tolerably fair hand, but have some 
knowledge of the theory of writing. 
The following (juestions prepared by the 
Wisconsin State Board of Examiners, 
will not be severely criticised even by 
our best professional teachers ; they are 
not exactly what might be given, but so 
much better than the most we see in 
that line, as to be appreciated by our 
readers. How many can answer all of 
them ? 

1. What coiislitutes the difference behveen 
i;o()(l and bad penmanship? 

2. Make, name, and describe the several ele- 
ments, or principles, in the system of penman- 
s\\\\i wliich you teach. 

3. What ot^ans and faculties require to be 
trninc^..Ul.Ojdfx;osUCfi;SsiHUwjQrk in ^gnman. 

ship ? 

4. What is the utility of analysis in learning 

5. At what period in school life should the 
study of systematic penmanship begin ; and 
what preliminary training, if any. will facilitate 
tlie progress of a pupil? 

6. Analyse each of the letters in the word 

7. Make all of the capital letters and classify 
them according to the principles employed. 

8. Write five or more lines as a specimen of 
your best penmanship. 

These examiners may or may not un- 
derstand the subject of writing thor- 
oiiglily ; they may be acquainted possibly 
with every system published ; but this 
is extremely doubtful. We venture to 
say that the candidate who follows the 
simplest analysis, and makes everything 
clear as he goes, will come off best, so 
far as writing is concerned. It is time, 
too, that the old fogy analysis was done 
away with ; our leading teachers do not 
follow it, nor do others like it. 

The Lon? Wlmrr J. 

There is no doubt "Prof. Hurlbut" 
was the originator of the round top / 
and /. I.usk got hold of this style, and 
seeing the advantage of the simpler 
form, he adopted it, and to-day it is in 
general use. It may be remembered by 
many of our old teachers that there was 
formerly no distinction in form between 
the / and /. They were exactly alike, 
and, when standing alone, there was no 
way of telling with certainty which was 

In the Cerman text and old English, 
the capitals /and /are also the same. 
If "Prof. Hurlbut" was the first to 

There is, no doubt, a selfish sort of 
satisfaction experienced by the writer, 
who confines himself exelusively to dead 
heroes. No one will be benefited by 
what he writes ; no one will be harmed. 
The grass will still continue to grow, 
and the birds to sing over their graves, 
whatever we may say of them, be it 
praise or censure. Whilst we are anxious 
to read of the illustrious dead, we are 
equally well pleased with what pertains 
to the worker of to-day. Our bump of 
veneration is very big, but the heroes of 
the hour have the preference. We hope 
friends Packard, Cooper and Spencer 
will soon exhaust the stock of old-tkne 
writing masters, and give us something 

Nf¥ and CliafTce. 

" Will you be kind enough to inform me what 
you think of Wm. B. Nye. of Columbia College, 
New York City, and W. G. Chaffee, Oswego, 
N. v., both teachers of shorthand, as advertised 
in your Gazette ? Chaffee advertises in Di T. 
Ames' Penman's Journal also, and is conductor 
of a school for book-keeping, writing, phonogra- 
phy, etc., etc. Do you know anything of Wm, 
as to his qualifications as teacher, etc.? Is he A 
No. I ? T wish to take up shorthand, and have 
received circulars and letters from each, |)ut 
have not decided which I would prefer. j 

Your answer would be very acceptable, if hot 
too much to ash of you." — W. W. J., Rock C!ly 
Falls, N. V,, a subscriber to your GAZETTE. 

We think that either of these parfies 
will give you entire satisfaction. 

The editor of the Book-keeper and 

Penman compliments us as " ///g irn^jji^ Our A d v ertise^ 

nd say: 

preparmg for 
vigorous summer campaign, being al- 
ready in the saddle. He forgets that 
penmen's papers are an exception to 
most journalistic ventures — that the 
" vigorous summer campaign " is un- 
necessary. We are too conservative for 
that. Brother Ames is the man he 

W. P. Cooper, of Ohio, one of the 
Spencerian pioneers of whom Mr. Pack- 
ard writes, sends us, this month, a con- 
tribution for our columns. He has 
taken as his subject our new book, and 
although we might have preferred some- 
thing different, we let him tell us what 
he thinks of it in his own way. As Mr. 
Cooper has written about it, we have 
asked the publishers, Messrs. Fairbanks, 
Palmer & Co., to send us a copy of one 
of the plates of blackboard writing to 
publish also. This will be found on 
page 5. This and a match piece form 
pages 43 and 44 in the book. The other 
will be given in our next issue. 

"The Book-keeper." — The latest 
journalistic success is "The Book- 
keeper," published by Seldon R. Hop- 
kins, 76 Chambers Street, New York. 
Accountants have long felt the want of a 
vigorous paper devoted to this specialty, 
and win patronize it liberally. Business 
colleges and other schools lose a good 
deal by not having this journal in their 
reading-rooms. Our friends will do 
well to write for a specimen copy. It 
is one of the handsomest papers we 
have seen, and up with the times in 
every respect. 

. / 

No young penman in his State has 
sent us better specimens of pi; 
ness writing than Master Stubblefield.of 
Murray, Ky. His autograph shows th 
ease and correctness of his writing ; thi 
up-and-down strokes of the extended 
loop letters — the best indication of skil- 
ful execution — being unusually accurate. 
We have no hesitancy in saying that 
young Stubblefield is the best writer of 
his age at present living in the State of 
Kentucky, if not in that entire section 
of country. He has acquired h 
ent style from Gaskell's Compendium, 
by home practice, without a teacher. 

Victor M. Ric< 

Prominent among the old time writing 
masters was Victor M. Rice, afterwards 
Superintendent of Public Instruction for 
the State of New York. Mr. Cooper 
has prepared a brief sketch of 1 
which will appear in our next issue. 

glad to know that 
now purchasing their inks of Fred. D. Ailing, 
Rochester, N. Y., who advertises in the Gazette. 
We are using some of his inks in our schools, 
and are well pleased with them. 

Penmen will do well to buy their card stock 
of the N. K. Card Co., Woonsocket, R. I. Their 
prices are very low, and they prepay postage on 
all cards sent through the mails. 

Our readers will hardly fail to see and read 
the attractive new advertisement of Madarasz, 
the card writer. Mr. M. is an extensive adver- 
tiser, and has thousands of orders and pleiUy of 
work. His cards are much superior to any en- 
graved ones we have seen, 

Young men and schools would do well to have 
Eaton & Burnett's " Manual of Commercial 

C. L. Van Doren, 822 Broadway, N. Y,, has a 
fine stock of penmen's supplies. 

Fairbanks, Palmer & Co. are now appointing 
agents for their new book, " Compendinm of 
Forms," which is having a large sale. A good 
chance for active agents to do well. 

Attention is invited to the card of the Ester- 
brook Steel Pen Co. This house made for us 
last year one thousand two hundred and fifty 
gt-oss of Gaskell's Compendium Steel Pens, the 
best steel pens for elegant business writing we 
have ever used. We have reason to believe 
their own styles are equally excellent for other 
classes of people. 

Remembers Packard. — Mr. Joe C. Knapp, 
of Browning, Schuyler County, Illinois, writes; 
"I see that S. S. Packard, of New York, is 
going to give a series of papers on teaching 
writing, and old-time writing masters, of some 
thirty years ago. My father attended one of 
Mr. Packard's writing schools at Adrian, Mich. ; 
Mr. Packard was then a young man, perhaps 
twenty-five or twenty-six." 

Mr. Knapp, the pupil, could give us some 
"reminiscences" of his own that wonid be in- 
teresting. We shall hope to receive something 
from him respecting Packard's school at Adrian. 

J. Y . Davis, of Altoona, Pa., is now publish- 
ing a monthly, devoted to "penmanship and 
book-keeping." It is bright and readable, and 
well worth the subscription price — one dollar .-i 

Lyman P. Smith, teacher of writing in the 
public schools of Hartford, Conn., is one of (he 
best writers on our list. He is preparing sev- 
eral sketches for us. 

The Penman's Art Journal publishes this 
month good portraits of Henry C. and Harvey 
A. Spencer. This is a feature the Jountal 
would do well to continue. 

Robert C. Spencer is still alive, and prosper- 
ing. Our next issue will contain a sketch from 
his pen, of " Lord " George Bristow, an itinerant 
teacher, who taught in Buffalo in 1854. He also 
contributes a lengthy biographical sketch of 
Victor M. Rice, who was at one time associated 
with his father in the publication of the Spen- 
cerian Copy Slips. 

H. Russell, C. T. Cragin, J. II. Warren, "I. 
N. H.," Paul Pastnor. S. S. Packard, and others, 
have articles in preparation. 

" Grandfather Fritz 
great living penmen. 

e of the 
ioon go 

M. J. Goldsmith, formerly of Pottsville, Pa., is 
now conducting the classes at Moore's Business 
College, Atlanta, Ga. 

Packard's Reminiscences are now beginning 
to awaken considerable interest. We all want 
to know what Mr. Packard thinks of his con- 
temporaries. He is a discriminating writer, but 
an honorable and liberal one. His pen portraits 
of Folsom, R. C. Spencer, Bryant, and others, 
will attract attention. 

George' H. Sbattuckwill soon give us some o( 
his experiences with old time teachers. 

Tbo Past and Present. 

'Uitrewas a time in the history of hu- 
manity when the ox cart was considered 
quite a rapid means of locomotion. Now, 
the impetuous, restless Yankee thinks 
electricity rather too slow. In the world 
of business this change is more promi- 
nent than elsewhere. 

The business man of our grandfathers' 
time bought his stock of goods, selected 
his clerks, got a comfortable arm chair 
for himself, and waited — for trade. The 
trader of to-day sits not down in the 
arm chair, nor does he wail long for 
business. He is up and about, and 
brings business in, even if he does it 
merely "for fun." 

It requires a very different class of 
people to do business in these days from 
that of a hundred, or fifty, or even 
twenty years ago. Ancient methods 
must be discarded, and the young men 
readers of the Gazette, not less than 
others, must prepare for a life of suc- 
cessful effort, or waive all right of title 
therein to others more energetic. And 
one of the first requisites is a good, easy 

Prok. GASKKi.r., who has established sucli a 
reputation for himself, and his Compendium, 
warns the public against the Boston concern — 
Tracy ^t Co. — who advertise "Prof. Gai^ell's 
compendium," which he claims is done to reap 
the benefit of his advertising. It looks very 
much as though Tracy & Co. had purposely 
adopted the name "Gargell," to confuse persons 
who arc not very familiar with the compendium. 
This is only another ex.imple of the mean prin- 
ciple which goes to make up this many named 
fraud.— //i'*-////' Herald. Philadelphia. 




I have just received and looked 
through a new book, Gaskell's "Com- 
pendium of Forms," educational, social, 
legal, and commercial. And what a 
liook it is ! How grand in its adorn- 
ment ! how solid and enduring in its 
binding ! 

Within its heavy, embellished covers, 
are five hundred pages of matter, close- 
ly printed, on the best of paper, in fine, 
hvit open print, every page il- 
lustrated by art, in the best 
manner, and containing 
knowledge, not for the young 
and unlettered alone, but for 
everybody, learned and un- 
learned, " peasant and king." 

This new and unique work 
is not so much one book as 
it is many volumes in one. 
It holds in its illuminated 
pages half a library of prar- 
tieal, essential, and always 
useful knowledge. 


before s( 







; in 

this V 

ay anybody 

can copy 

use, 3 



tand them. 

Also in 


s orde 


will fi 

nd the laws 



of bu 


ss, as i 

n operation 

and use to-day, all made perfectly plain. 
Further on, we find no end to the sub- 
jects discussed. And these are what 
every young man and woman in this 
country are particularly interested in. 

The value, as I said, of this book is 
mainly in this : The subject matter is 
not obscure, not hard to understand ; it 
is presented in such a way as to make 

kell would handle this art in his book. 
First of all, the illustrations and exam- 
ples for practice were surely never 
more beautiful ; still are they as com- 
pletely fitted to purposes of instruction. 
The copy wordings are all short, appro- 
priate, the right words in the right 
places, being at once simple, beautiful 
and practical. The rules and obser- 
vations are very clear and concise, and 
stand out sharp and well-defined ; the 
ideas give one an index to Mr. Gaskell's 
methods, which make us tolerably well 
acquainted with him. 


This rare book is, of course, 
\." supply a want of the Amer- 
n m people ; not that this 
kiiii\\ledge is nowhere else to 
W found, but surely nowhere 
Is It so carefully indexed and 
so readily accessible at all 
times. There is no end to the 
books published, but, some- 
how, those who need many of 
them never get them. This 
book is what the million need, 
an<i must have, either in this 
or in some more expensive 
form, and less attractive 

I'ublishers generally un- 
derstand the art of making 
iiUter than the art of selling 
l)onks, and yet the usual 
mi tiiods to reach sales they 
Use and understand well 
ennuLih. The publishers of 
this work seem to have hit the 
mark exactly, for they have 
made the book so handsome 
inside and out, that every 
one will buy it. 

There is plenty of room 
and demand for a large num- 
lier of such books ; we can 
ne\ er have too many of them. 
1!) means of them our young 
p.uple will become well in- 
loiiiRd by their reading alone. 

We say it is also a new book. 
We do not mean wholly new 
in matter, but the handling 
of this matter is new. There 
is in these five hundred pages 
a condensation of over fifteen 
hundred pages, and still each subject 
is comi)rehensively treated. 

It treats, first, of penmanship, next of 
orihot;raphy, of rhetorical figures, of 
' imposition ; then of elocution, of 
"I 'I'ln', of book-keeping, double and 
sin-le entry. Then comes a dictionary 
ol s)nonyms, copious and complete. 
Then we have letter writing. This 
co\ ers all business on paper ; everything 
1- ' Uarly explained and models given. 

\L;am come the forms of commercial 
paper greatly simplified, those that will 
stand good in any suit at law. I have 

millions in this country. The perfection 
of the parts, the fullness, the thorough 
unitizing of the beautiful and the useful, 
are qualities that will carry the book to 
the highest success, as publishers view 

But, after all, no correct idea of this 
book could be had without, at least, an 
index to its matter. It is, furthermore, 
a volume for to-day and for all time. 
Laws and legal forms will change some- 
what, no doubt, and so will much other 
matter herein contained ; but in this 
work you have these as they now are. 
.'\ large sale of this book — 
North, South, East, and West 
— will greatly benefit the peo- 
ple. By following its hints 
they will gain time in the 
securing of "an education," 
and convert high civilization 
to better uses. If we con- 
sider the magnitude of the 
work the price is cheap. It 
is better to economize means, 
and in the end purchase this 
volume, than to waste four 
times as much on a half dozen 
imperfect books. 

h'ift^n:U!t, Ohio, Aptil 20, 1881. 


y?^-i^yi^.,y- y,^.^t^1 _ , , 

-j.^c^.u^^c^ ^zuA/ji:^/^^^^^ 

Oc^/iv .v^.^^^ 




an impression upon the mind and be 
retained. The limits of this article will 
only admit of a more extended notice 
of one or two subjects. First, 


both ornamental and practical, flourish- 
ing and lettering, included. 

Having taught writing forty years, not 
only as taught before 1842, but in con- 
nection with Spencer, Rice, Cowley, and 
Lusk, and in many colleges, and care- 
fully considered all methods, I was nat- 
urally curious to see how Brother Gas- 

In truth, so complete and full is 
everything in this department, that I see 
nothing wanting. Hence the book fur- 
nishes all that any one needs on this 
subject. Orthography, elocution, ora- 
tory, etc., are all just as skilfully han- 
dled. The method of teaching and ex- 
plaining each is just as simple, practi- 
cal, and complete ; and so we might say 
of book-keeping and a thousand other 
matters in this volume. It has, all 
through, the impress of all improve- 
ments of this age in the book line to 
give it value and make it desirable to 

One talent, well cultivated, 
deepened and enlarged, is 
worth a hundred shallow fac- 
ulties. The first law of suc- 
cess, at this day, when so 
many matters are clamoring 
for attention, is concentra- 
tion — to bend all the energies 
to one point, looking neither 
;o the right nor to the left. 
It has been justly said that a 
great deal of the wisdom of a 
man in this century vs shown 
in leaving things unknown ; 
and a great deal of his prac- 
tical sense in leaving things 
undone. The day of univer- 
sal scholars is past. " Life is 
short and art is long." The 
range of human knowledge 
has increased so enormously 
that no brain can grapple 
with it, and the men who 
would know one thing well 
must have the courage to be 
ignorant of a thousand things, 
however attractive or invit- 
ing. As with knowledge, so 
with work. The man who 
would get along must single 
out his specialty, and into 
that must pour the whole 
stream of his activity — all the 
energies of his hand, eye, 
tongue, heart and brain. 
Broad culture, many sided- 
ness are beautiful things to 
contemplate ; but it is the 
narrow edge men, the men of single 
and intense purpose who steel their 
souls against all things else, who accom- 
plish the hard work of the world, and 
who are everywhere in demand when 
hard work is to be done. — Baptist 

The Moss Engraving Co., of this 
city, are doing as fine work in their line 
as has ever been done. The portraits in 
this issue are fair samples of it. They 
fill all orders promptly, and their prices 
are reasonable. — See advertisement inside. 


kick's whereabouts. 

Okficr ok Brvant & Stratton's 1 College, j- 

CmcAno, May 33, 1881. ) 

I notice in last Gazettk some one wants to 
know my whereabouts. 

Please inform him that I have a permanent 
position as teacher and correspondent in this 
institution, and any mail addressed here will 

I shall soon take a vacation of several months, 
ami will sjicnd the time in the vicinity of Den- 
ver. Colorado, nnd ns a pa-^limc, I am thinking 
of taking the agency for your Compendium of 
Forms. Yours. 

C. W. Rice. 

' Will you jjlense inform me ihc price of 
Imlia ink per slick, and inkstands to prepare it 
in. and where can I gel them."— Eugenr Mock, 
Waiipccong, Ind. 

India ink costs from fifty cents to a 
dollar or so a stick ; the stands range in 
|.rice all the way from forty cents to 
three dollars. Any first class dealer in 
.artists' materials will supply you. 

" Can you favor mc with the business address 

If ! 

of Scldon R. Hopkins, of New York 
please oblige."'— F. C. Cheever, Saugus, Miss. 
Address Seldon R. Hopkins, pub- 
lisher of " The Book-keeper" New York 


" Are you gojnc to use any mo re autogra p hs 
in ynur Ga/ETTE? Some of your patrons are 
making tliu inijuiry, Wc would like to see 
more of them. IxUli old and new styles."— J. H. 
W11.1IAMS. Winchester, Ind. 

The autographs showing improvement 
from using Gaskell's Compendium are 
published each month in Scribmr's 
Monthly ; we have not the space to give 
them in the Gazette. 


" ricase tell me what it would cost me lo pro- 
cure my signature on a plate, the size yours are 
ungravcd ; also an electrotyped copy of same." 
— 1-. M. HiNsuN. Mebancsville, N. C. 

Russell & Richardson charge $2.50 
for engraving a single autograph. The 
Moss Engraving Co. will do the work 
for less. Electrotypes of such cuts cost 
from 25c. to 50c. each. 

•■ Please inform me what you will charge for 
hack nunibei-^ of the Ga/ette, complete, from 
as far back as you have, and oblige M. II, 
Callahan, Tangipahoa, La., and many others." 
We can furnish no back numbers at 
any price. The only way to get back 
nuiHbers is lo advertise for them. 

'■ Please tell mc if writing with the obliqu 
]>cn holder spoils the hand for writing with . 
straight one,"— W. H. P.. NorUifield, Iowa. 

It does not. 

" Should the pen be held very lightly or 
firmly ?"-!). L. E.. FuUcn's, Tenn. 

Firmly, but easily ; the fingers should 
not be cramped. 

" I have been reading the articles by S. S. 
Packard with great interest. They are very en- 
couraging lo the student of penmanship, and 
through their' influence the author will do much 
good. Many who set out with the determination 
to become accomplished penmen are discour- 
aged by failure. Mr. Packard's ' Reminiscences ' 
will give to such strength and courage to go on. 
Such, at least, is my experience. Sometimes I 
almost despair, but am determined to become 
accomplished in the art which I so much love. 
When in school, the half hour devoted to Ihat 
branch was a severe punishment lo me. As a 
result, my writing was scarcely legible. My 
teacher told me that I had no talent for it, and 
could never learn to use the pen well. After 
leaving school 1 began the study with very 
limited help. My progress, as you may guess, 
was not the most rapid. I have at last learned 
to write a legible hand ; but I cannot write 
rapidly, and my lines are not as smooth as they 
should be. I am anxious lo prepare myself for 
a teacher, and want to know how I may correct 
the faults which hinder my progress. How may 
I learn ornamental penmanship and f^n draw- 
ing ? By answering, you will greatly oblige one 
who wants to succeed." — Sudscrider, Holing- 
broke, Ga. 

You need more practice on movement 
exercises to develop a better command 
of the forearm. You will learn orna- 
mental penmanship by following some 
author's hints and examples, or by plac- 
ing yourself under a thoroughly good 

" What does your penmanship 'Compendium ' 
consist of ? Is it copies only, or does it give 
instructions and principles in writing? I 
would like to improve my handwriting, and 
think your Compendium is what I want. What 
is the price, post paid ?" — Hanford A. Groves, 
Newark Valley, N. Y. 

__ Gaskell's Cgmperidium of Peniiip,n- 
ship consists of copy slips, printed in- 
structions, ornamental work, etc. In 
the instructions the principles are ex- 
plained fully ; so, also, are position, 
movement, etc. The jirice is one dollar. 


"Are ihe ink recipes advertised by J. S. Gas- 
kell in the Ga/,KTTE first class ? If the black 
ink can be made easily, a big thing can be made 
out of it here."— John T. M., Montclair. N. J. 

We have tried the black ink made 
from his directions ; it is as good as any 
we ever saw. Several of our subscribers 
have written us to show the brilliancy of 
the ink they have made from the recipe, 
and are proud of their success. We see 
nothing to prevent you from doing well 
with it, as good ink is not so plenty that 
the market is overstocked. 

\For thf Pemi»a«-t Ca 


Duiinw. Colleges of Pl.aadclphLi. 

The superiority of writing, as a lan- 
guage of common necessity, its relation 
to printing, and its own legitimate sphere 
as an exponent of thought, will first be 

The desire to communicate our 
thoughts to others is natural to us all, 
and its gratification is consequently one 
of the highest sources of enjoyment. It 
is this which makes us social beings, and 
is, therefore, the very basis of society. 
Without society, and its social and 
moral influences, where would we find 
enjoyment ? It is a wise provision of 
Providence that we have such a variety 

of ways by which we can convey our 

Our Creator has given to all the higher 
order of beings the power of manifest- 
ing their wants to each other in a more 
or less intelligible manner. Although 
man is endowed with the faculty of the 
natural language in a much greater de- 
gree than any other animal, yet he is un- 
able to express his thoughts and emo- 
tions, and has, therefore, invented a 
method of communicating, called arti- 
ficial language. 

Natural language is expressed in a 
variety of ways, as the crying of a child 
denotes grief ; the gestures, the bark of 
a dog, etc., are examples of natural lan- 
guage ; so artificial language is mani- 
fested in several ways, as talking, hand- 
writing, phonography, telegraphy, etc. 

Since artificial language is capable of 
conveying every variety of thought and 
emotion, natural language is used only 
in connection with it, and is very little 
cultivated. Neither the natural or arti- 
ficial language can perform the office of 
the other. 

Writing fills an office in language 
which no other department of either 
language can, for the permanent nature 
of visible characters renders a transmis- 
sion of ideas and thoughts to an inex- 
haustive number, and unlimited time 
and space. 

In committing to paper matters in- 
volving important items of commerce, 
or sentiments of friendship in family 
letters, and letters of all forms of friend- 
ship, it would seem that not only the 
best materials of stationery should be 
procured, that the tidy appearance of 
these communications be preserved, but 
that the character of the penmanship 
should be legible, beautiful and simple. 
" A thing of beauty is a joy forever." 

How grateful we ought to be that we 
are gifted with the power of conception, 
and have at our service men who can 
teach us to write, and to frame commer- 
cial and ceremonious letters according 
to the customs of business men, and the 
polite and genteel society of the present 
day. There was a time when kings and 
queens, as well as others of the highest 
social standing, could not write their 
names ; not so very long ago, only a few 
hundred years back, when learning was 
confined to the few. 

Although printing revolutionized so- 
ciety over four hundred years ago, and 
possesses many obvious advantages for 
dissemination of thought, yet the pen, in- 
stead of being dispensed with, has be- 
come the most powerful auxiliary of the 
press, accomplishes more, and has a 
wider influence than ever before. At 
no time in the history of the world has 
education made such rapid and univer- 
sal progress. 

No invention of man has yet been able 
to supersede the pen as the primary ex- 
ponent of thought, and its use, instead of 
being confined to the few, as in times 
past, is now essayed to be taught to 
every individual. Upon it rests the 
whole superstructure of commerce and 
literature, while it affords the readiest 
means of commuication between parties 
separated by distance, as to their busi- 
ness, their plans, their hopes and their 

of the Gazette will 

be ready July 19, 

Self Teaching. 

Easton, Pa.. June 6, 1881. 
To the F.diter of (he Penman's Gautfe : 

The fourth issue of your paper has been re- 
ceived. I do not hcsilalc to say most emphat- 
ically, that it is the best paper for students in 
penmanship ever published. If you will permit 
me the use of your columns. I will give to your 
many readers a brief description of my expe- 
rience with the Compendium. Three years after 
the first issue of the Compendium, I sent for a 
copy of it, which I duly received a few days 
afterward. Like, perhaps, a great many others 
who have failed to acquire an easy and good 
handwriting. I read the instructions over once, 
and then laid them away, instead of carefully 
studying ihe elementary lines, so that I might 
have recognized them in letters of various forms. 
I next look a look at Slip i, and thinking it of 
little significance lo waste time practicing those 
" curlycues." I took up Nos. ig. 16 and iS, and 
commenced trying to imitate ihem ; but here 
I soon exhausted all patience, and so I put 
them in the case, and put them away, never 
to look at Ihem again. I dare say there 
are others who have even done worse, burn- 
ed them or threw them away, and Ihoughl 
they must give up all hope of learning to write 
well. This, however, I did not do, but gave it 
to a friend, who, I hope, has made better use of 
it than I did. I write this in justice lo the au- 
thor, and as a warning to others. Five months 
ago I requested you to send me a specimen copy 
of the Gazette, which you kindly sent me, and 
for which you will now please accept my thanks. 
In that issue I noticed several very fine auto- 
graphs, claimed lo have been acquired from the 
Compendium. I at once made up my mind to 
reform, so that if ever I wished lo write business 
letters, or was asked lo write in some lady's 
album, I would have no need to be ashamed of 
my handwriling. and so I at once dispatched an 
order for another Compendium and one year's 
subscription to the Gazette. This time, how- 
ever, I was a little wiser, and studied the book 
of instructions till I was thoroughly acquaintc<l 
with its contents before practising with the pen. 
I follow the instructions to the letter, and I am 
now satisfied, if 1 had done this before. I would 
be a first rate penman by this time. 

With this, I will inclose specimens of my 
handwriting, before and after using the Com- 
pendium three months, and my improvement, 
which is wholly due to the Compendium and 
Gazette. From the Gazette 1 have already 
learned points worth five limes the subscription 
price I paid. No student in penmanship should 
be without it, as it encourages all lo do their 
best, and imparts valuable information to a 

Very respectfully, 

A Baltimore clergyman recently preached on 
the subject : " Why was Laz.arus a beggar ?" 
We suppose because he didn't advertise. — 

Certainly. And if the reader 
to attend a poor school, let him si 
business college whose proprietor 
energy enough to advertise it. It 
possible to maintain a large ; 
ful private school of any kind 
advertising it in one way or .1 
Merit alone ought to support 
doubt ; but it won't. 

:lect a 


Tlio Swan. 

Another penman gives learners ex- 
plicit directions for making the swan : 

The commencing line begins just below the 
eye of the swan, in the concave curve which 
forms the lower portion of the head ; it con- 
tinues lip the neck, around the body, up again 
forming the wings, then down forming the tail — 
all without once raising the pen. Now, the 
penman goes back, lengthens out the curves 
in Ihe bill, and finishes the neck ; he touches 
up the defective strokes and inserts the eye- 

Then, after inverting the sheet, the other 
nourishes arc made. The hair lines are then 
ornamented, and the broken lines retouched, by 
holding the pen in the ordinary way. The 
llourish is then complete. 


f xpcriences of an Applicant for a 
** Sitaation/' 

Jane Jones was an orphan, and en- 
tirely dependent upon her own resources 
for pecuniary supjjort. She possessed a 
pood common school education, an 
.ivcrage share of common sense, and a 
little more than the usual amount of 
business training generally acquired by 
ladies. She had no influential friends 
to whom she felt at liberty to apply for 
assistance, and being of rather an inde- 
pendent disposition, would doubtless 
h.ive preferred to help herself even if 
she had numbered among her relatives 
those high in social and commercial 

At length she decided to visit one of 
the larger cities, and win for herself a 
place, although well aware that the 
chances for a stranger in a strange city 
were somewhat speculative. She ar 
rived on a dismal day in early spring, 
-md purchasing a paper of a newsboy, 
cMgerly scanned the advertisements in 
sc:irch of " Rooms to Rent," or " Board 
LTs Wanted." By a process of rapid 
rurisoning known only to the feminine 
mind, and perhaps rightly termed intui- 
tion, she decided upon a street and 
number, and requested an omnibus 
driver to take her there. 

Arriving at her destination, she de- 
sired the driver to wait a few minutes 
until she could see if the place would be 
likely to furnish suitable accommoda- 
tions. On ringing the bell, the door was 
opened by a neat looking servant, who 
upon learning Miss Jane's errand, led 
the way to a bright, little parlor, and 
retired to call her mistress. Landlady 
and lodger were mutually pleased with 
rangements speedily 


Next morning Ja 
; newspaper office 
the advertising ( 

le visited the lead- 
, and inserted cards 
olumns under the 

head of " Situations Wanted ;" a week 
went by and no light had yet dawned 
on her darkened pathway. But she 
possessed a good stock of patience, and 
h;id come prepared to make the most of 
It. By this time she had become some- 
what familiar with the streets, and most 
prominent business places, but could 
hear of no employment except canvass- 
ing and domestic service. She had no 
false pride, and determined to accept the 
latter if nothing better offered itself 
within a few days ; but fate, or her own 
energy, had decreed otherwise, and at 
l-iNt there came an answer to one of her 
.i.Uertisements, asking a reply in her 
nwn handwriting. 

.\ssuming her best style of penman- 
ship, Jane hastily complied, and soon 
rL(.cived a note requesting her to call at 
the office of Smith 5: Co., prominent 
business men of the city. On reaching 
ttie number designated, she was, after 
some little meditation on the part of 
Smith & Co., who seemed to prefer em- 
|. loving some representative of the 
sterner sex, offered the position of busi- 
ness correspondent, if, after a week's 
inal. they found her work satisfactory. 

At the expiration of the time men- 
tioned, she was informed that she could 
remain, if she still desired to retain the 
I'OMtion. After becoming somewhat 
a.quainted, Jane one day asked the 

senior partner what had induced them 
I to answer the advertisement, and was 

told that they had first been attracted 
I by its wording, and by the fact that she 
I had signed her own name, and given 
I street and number, adding : 

" There is no reason why one should 
I be ashained of honest work, and I don 

admire the custom of addressing appi 
' cants by initials, at some box of som 
! newspaper office." 

" The straightforward individual who 
! will sign his full name to a confession, 
! that he is seeking honorable employ- 
j ment, is the one that suits me best, and 

I think most business men share that 


WANTED %"^"S,f,T2?T;^":^l 


Inttfkatuy, i„ r,m„„„mti,ig «&,., «.»,/,/>,.»> (, 
taittri. C. A. CASKELL. 




Black Ink used by ihe leading penmci 
the country, and for which there is si 

X' Tt is a'^V"//w'«" bla\\V"he°b Jt' bl! 
I ever saw. My boys have sold the ink 
it. fast as 1 could make it, in all now over 



Leading Numbers: 14, 048, 130, 333, 161. 
For Sale by all Stationers. 

Premium for one Subscriber! 

eccive a copy of Mr. Lilley's new book. '■ StUeli 

Brooks' Grove. 


Educntional, Socinl, Legal and CoDiiuercinl. 

1 Largs, Elkgantlv Illustbatkd Quarto Vol 

This Compendium contains chapters on 

Writikg, Penmanship and Psn Flourishing. — Con- 
.-liniog a History of Writing. Analysis of Small and Capital 
-ettera. with Rules and Directions for Plain Business 
nanship, OfT-Hand Flourishing. Teaching Penmai 
■iow to Organize and Conduct WriUng Schools. El«i 
lluslraled with twelve TuU page Lithographic Plate 

[, Slang Expressions. Fig' 

. Kc] 

. Fore 

ibjects for Essays, for CompOi 
>ut3tions. Discussions, Deli 
1 and Or:iiions. 
Synonyms. — Nearly 30,0 

tions. for Conference, for Di 
erative and Political, for Po< 
Dictionary of Enclis 
Synonymous Words, or Par: 
crences 10 words of contrary meaning. Dictionary 


Lbttkr Writing,— Comprising Analysis of the Positi< 
Arrangexnenl. and various parts of Letters, including Hea 
ing. Conclusion. Signature, Use and Abuse of Titles. St] 
and Expression. Paper and Envelopes. 

Lbttbrs op Corresfomdsncb. — Including Mercant 
Li^lere, Lettcrt of Credit, Letter? of Application. Letters 

:. Advi 

Recommendation. Domestic Letters, Letters i 
Courtship. Notes Accompanying Gifu, etc. 
Social Correspondbncb and Forms.— Giv 

:. Economy. Sclf-Help, Good 

>nd Compound Interest Tables. Interest and Usury 
>f each Stale, and Statute of LimiUU'ons, Bankin 
Equation Tables, a Complcic Glossary of Legal and 

Laws a 

> Fori 

ss Law in Gen- 
eral. The Law and Forms of Agreements and Contracts. 
Breach of Contract. Agency. Attorneys. Apprentices, Arbi- 
tration. Assignments. Bonds. Bills of Sale. Chattel Mori- 
gages. Common Carrier. Deeds. Abstract of ihc Uws of 
the several Swtes governing Deeds. Guaranty. landlord 
and Tenant. Leases. Married Women, with abstract of all 
Sute Laws. Mortgages, Partnership. Patents, Fire. Marine 
and Life Insurance. The Right of Suffrage. Aliens, The In- 
solvent Laws of each State, and Jurisdiction of Justice of 
the Peace. Trade Marks, Fjcemptions from Forced Sale, 
and Colleciion of Debts, a Complete AUtract of tlie Uws 

Tables of Rbfebencb.— Contains Thousands of Facis, 
gives a Tabular. Political, Financial. MiliUry and Naval 
History of the United Swies; History of each Sute. its 
Debt, Legislntivc Government, Number of Miles of Rail- 
road in .880, Population in .880; Distances, Siies. Date*. 
Measures and Weights. Value o( Foreign Coins, The Whole 
Civiliied World at a Glance; Exports and Imports of vari- 
ous Countries, the whole forming a SLindard Compendium 




For Fifteen New Subscribers sent 
us BY A Subscriber, 


: Compendium OF Forms: 

EducatioDal, Social, Legal and Coniiiimial. 

Embracing a complete Self- Teaching Course 

in PettmansJtip and Book-keeping, and 

Aid to English Composition. 

Including Orthography, Capital Lcllers, Punc- 
tuation, Composition, Elocution, Oratory, Rhet- 
oric, Letter Writing in all its Forms, the Laws 
and By-Laws of Social Etiquette, Business, Law 
and Commercial Forms, Complete Dictionary of 
Legal and Commercial Terms, Synonyms, Abbre- 
viations, Foreign Phrases, Poetry, etc. 

Also, a Manual of Agriculture and Mechanics, 
with a Complete Guide to Parliamentary Prac- 
tice, Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies, 
Organization and Conduct of Meetings, etc. ; 
Game Laws of United States and Provinces ; 
also, the following Tables for Ready Reference : 
Financial HUtory 0/ thf UuUfd Statts. 

<l Hhi 

Glance at Our Forfisn Trade. 

ComphU History o/tae A Stait and Territory. 

Population 0/ States, Territories and Principal Cities 0/ 

U. S /or raro and 1880, 
Educational and Religious Tables, 
Metric System 0/ Weights and Measure,, 

Out Large, Eieganilt luusTiiATED Quarto Volume, 

Price, $ff.SO, 


AotMis WA«iiit>._Aciive, tnergeU'c agents ol goo 
given specially liberal rates, and absolute contro?'orterri 

Agent at Logan, Utah, made J870 in six weeks. 

AcBNT AT Waukegan, III., made J137.S0 in four day! 

Agents everywhere say it is the easietl and best iellini 
work ihcy have ever handled. Now is the Ume to seeur 


<6 Madison Street, Chicago, 111. 

the volumes in daily usc.—JI„ston Daily Herald. 

One of the most usefiil books for reference, or study, re- 
cently issued, U undoubtedly " GnikcH's Compendium of 
Forms."_5orfo« Courier. 
It contains a vast amount of valuable information. 

JOHK D. Long, Gat: 0/ Mass. 
It surpasses any hook of the kind 1 h.ive ever seen ; is » 
complete library in iticlf. 

Natt Hbad. 
Gov. o/Neto Hampshire, 
I have examined your •■ Gaskell's Compendium of Forms" 
with much interest and satisfaction; while the book ij of 
great value in familje:., the business man— In fact, everybody 
will derive profil by a perusal of its pages. 

Hon. James A. Whstow. 
Ex-Co^K o/Neiu Hampshire. 
It supplies a much needed want, and will ienefil all who 

Hon, Marcus L. Ward, 

£r- Gov. 0/ Hfiv Jersey. 

S. S. Packahi>, 
Packard's Business College. New York. 

It is one of the most useful books in my library. It con- 
tains a world of information carefully arrangetf, claASilied 
and indexed. The work is eminently practical, and cannot 
fail to be a valuable book of reference and instruction to 
It U fu'U ofgood'ihil,'^.'' P"*'"**"""'"' """■ 
J. E. SoutR, Principal, 
Bryant & Siratton Husineis College, Philadelphia. Pa. 

U decidedly the best and only complete work of the kind 
W. H. Saulkr, Princip,il, 
Bryant, Stratlon & Sadler College. Baltimore Md 

H, E. HiouARD, Principal, 
A & Stratton Commercial ScAool. Boston. 

orld of awkwardness, and will grow wiier by having 

W. A. Dkake. Principal. 

Hillsdale [Mich.J CoUege. 


[pENMANS Gazette 



To any pcnon tending u» a cluh o( fi/lttn tubieribtrt, 

U.ndwmelT'bc'ond'^py oV' "GK^^^AAr^ COlJ^EN- 
DIUM •'(. I AWN AND KORMS."^ royal quarto vol. 
jni'; .r r : .;«, luperbly llliulrated wilh 

)|rr<- >>r>>rmalion In thcM branches 

who wbhes 10 »vaU \ 


frventy.five cent* eacli. wc «rIH man TOWNSKND'I 
J.YSISDF LE-nER WRITING, a very com pie t 
..ndv,mc manual, price «I,AO. 




Alling's Superior Writing Inks. 


violet. Green wid Scarlet. ' 
Aliing*» Japan Ink afford* a finer line, a bine 

inq't Jap 

a India Ink. 
Diirish^ can be execute 
erfeci flow of ink. It 

trui and Dsplay WriiinK, 

AlUng'n Gold, sltver and Wbft« JnJcs. flow 
freely, rendering the Iighlcsl «rokes perlcctly leeible and 

Rli'f, and fatty re»Uta Ihe aetiot^ of iretX. 

\V?^i"clnk\^'oCce bottle. IsJ^x^^V.V.V.'.V.V".'.! ' ^ 

(iold or Silver Ink, H ounce bottle, by utpress 50 

Deep Black Ink. per Qiwrt ■• " 60 

Mercuntile Ink. " " " 75 

PENMAN'S INK CABINET, No. 1.— Price, $». 

Contains the fullowinf Inks ; i ot. bottle each ol Japan, 
Carmine. Blur, Viol,.., G.cen. Contrasl Carmine, iicarlei,,l-, l>"p Hh,~l. 

PK.\ w I V •- / \ f. < I HI.\KT, No. g.— Price, $3. 

LV.nt .11. iIm I. ii uii.,: li.w~ , 3 oz. bottle cnch of Japan, 
Carnimc. blue. Violec. i.reen. Contrast Carmine, Scarlet 
Metcani.k. Deep IJlcck 

Three qu.-vrter ounce bottle White Ink, and >4 o.mce 
bottle of both Gold and Silver Inks. 

Spoelat JVtfUee lo Auenta.— To Card Wriiers, 
Students or Teachers of Penmanship, desirous of extending 
the salo of my manufactures, the above inks will be fur- 

Enctove ten cent* in slampt, for which slip bearing sam- 
plB of the colors of Inks, Cards executed with Japan and 
Ontamenial Inks. Price List, with "Special Rates to 
Agents." Circulars, etc., will be sent. Addres, 

Fhkd, v. Alunc, Ink Manufacturer, Rochester, N. V. 

N. Q.— -No attention given to postal card requests for 

TliSllMi'MAl [.El IF.RS. 

competent judges of Writin 


,i>viLUt. Pa.. J)rc. 9, 1S80. 
irc^tile and Deep Rlacklnl 

. SMITH, Principal Business College 
CR Of Sorr, or Writikc [ 

'e are unng your Inks with great satisfac- 
panial to inks thai flow fteely, and at the 
same ume snow distinctly at once the finest lines by gas- 
light or daylight, we prefer your Deep Black, or Japan and 
llfercai,tile'lnks r-med. Your Fancy Inks are the finest 
lani we ave .ise ^^^^ ^^ Penmansbiji. 


,ome time we have hIJTTr own pens made ,0 orler 

:. We shall be gUd 





Send 25 cents for Full Line of Samples. 

Also a fvill line of Penman's an.) Teachers' Sup- 
plies, Pens, Inks, Pen-holjers, Bristol 
Board. Etc., Etc. 
Srnd for Piiii I.isl. 


89-i BBOABWAY, ti. Y. 






If SO, will yot$ not favor tne with a trial order f I am confident I can please you. 

No doubt you havo a dozen friends or more lo whom you would like to present your cai^, 
written in the liandsomeat style possible. By sending priced of the styles you desire in currency or 
postage stamps to me in a letter, carefully nddressed, you will receive cards by return mail and in 
g04)d order, as I take particular pains in doing them up. 


O^^P^XDS, ^^LXj t^ost i=.^xid_ 

No. 1 Plain White, Best Quality 30c.'"' 66c. 

2 riaiu White, Wedding Bristol 33c. 60c. 

3 Gilt Edge, the latest styles 35(;. 65c. 

4 Tinted Bristol, all colors gpc, 6fic. 

5 Phantom Bristol, very durable 330, 60c. 

(i Bovel Gilt Kdge (these cards are the most faahionable in New York City), the 

latest styles always on hand 45(.. 85(^ 

7 The EHU (turned corner, with beautiful gold, silver and tinted paper bows).. . 46c. 85c. 

8 Pen Flourished — genuine pen and ink work. To students in writing they are 

very useful 50c. 95c. 

Hoping to receive your order, 1 remain. Yours truly, 


P. O. Box 161, Jersey City, JVctv Jersey. 



By A, H. EATON, 






:Ft©tail X^xico, - - SX.OO 



askmll's Compendium op PsMMANSuiphasD' 
very part of (he English speaking world. It is 
g. Tile demand Tor it has been conttani from I 
, and this demand has increased with the yc 

lupply it promptly 

Oh€ huHdrtd andfi/t), thoutanJ eo/Ui h 
sold. The revised edition, now ready, with m 
piects. alphabet!, and other changes, is Itill b 



V. O. Address. Box 21:6. 



$2.oo a year ; six months, $1.00. 
Special terms to Agents .ind Club Rates 

on application. 
Single copies, 8c. For sale by Navstiealers. 




Theoretical and mathematical elucidations, in- 
troducing new, simplified and interesting 
features of accounting. 

Practical proldems from the counting-room, il- 
lustrating the theory of accounts, and demon- 
strating intricate questions in partnership 

Instructive notes upon plans and methods of 
book-keeping in every department of trade, 
commerce and industry. 

biographical Sketches. I'e 

<al and n 





Read the following extracts of what is 

■■ It is a neat and valuable trade journal." — /few York 

nerchanls and accountants.— /'Ai/aAZ/A /a Ledger. 

"Its topography and general appearance is neat. The 
subjects treated arc calculated to inspire confidence in its 

From it^. 7. H. Pollard. Cashier Firit National Dank ol 
Stonington. Conn. : " • • I am much pleased with your 

From Mr. W. W. BeU. Book-keep. 
Campbell & Co.. Phila. : "Such a pape 
wanted by the prorejsion." 

r with Kreidcr, 
r is just tlie thing 

keepel^' A^ciaTionV Pa. :'''"' •"•"'' 
with the paper, and will do all 1 can to pro 


From Mr. Chat. A. UHderhill. Book-k 
Savings Institution, New Vork : " ■ 

From D. L. HiU. Cashier Firsl Nations 

1 Bank. Decatur, 

;r Mercb.inu" Bank 

,. Mt the first line I 

read of your paper was worth the subscription price, which 

From Mr. Joieik Mae/trran. Book-keeper at Baldwin 
Locomotive Works. Phifa. : •• • • your salutatory U 

arc faithfully carried out, it ought to, and no doubt will' 
recommend itself to the favnrable connderation of book- 
From F F n^rk. H^oL-lcrprr of the Anglo- California 

goodwi--li."i . : I .f publication, which will! 

I trust. iiicL iimrt of all book-keepers 

Selected from among our subscribers, we 

respectfully refer to the following 

educators : 

Prof. H. B, BRYANT. Chicago. 

Prof. A- R. Raskins, Poughkcepsic. 

Prof. C. A. CADY, New Vork. 

Prof. C. CLAGHORN, Brooklyn. 
Pr^f, A n Wll.r. Daylon. 

Prnf H C WRIGHT, Brooklyn. 

:nt by ■ubscribing for 

; all communications, 
The Book-keeper, 

p. O. Box 2126,